## Before Sudoku: The World of Magic SquaresSudoku has become a vastly popular and even addictive game. But fans may not know that Sudoku is a recent offshoot of the venerable Magic Square, which dates back over 4,000 years to ancient China, where it was literally considered magical. Indeed, Magic Squares have fascinated centuries of mystics, astrologers, and some of the world's most brilliant thinkers, including Ben Franklin. In Sudoku and Magic Squares, Seymour Block and Santiago Tavares offer a crystal clear and engagingtour tour of Magic Squares, tracing their footsteps through through ancient and medieval history and illuminating their uses in art and design, statistics and electronics. The book provides a delightful account of a mind-boggling variety of magical squares, ranging from simple 3 x 3 and squares, to magic cubes, magic circles, magic pyramids, and even "the Beastly Magical Square," whose magic sum is 666. Of course, the authors also cover Sudoku, describing how the game became a world-wide phenomenon and revealing various strategies for solving the puzzles. And along the way, the book offers readers many fascinating facts - for instance, Sudoku was invented in 1979 by an American architect living in Indianapolis and was originally called Number Place. Oddly enough, though the puzzle is known around the world by its Japanese name (which means "single numbers"), many Japanese still call it Number Place. We also learn that in a 4 x 4 magic square, there are 880 different solutions that will yield the magic sum of 34 - a surprisingly large number until you remember that there are over 2.6 trillion possible combinations. Filled with lots of original puzzles for gamers to solve, Sudoku and Magic Squares is an entertaining book that will delight anyone who loves a challenge, including all fans of Sudoku. |

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### Contents

Introduction | 1 |

Some Techniques for Solving Sudoku Puzzles | 11 |

History of Mafic Squares | 20 |

Copyright | |

10 other sections not shown

### Common terms and phrases

3x3 magic 4x4 magic square addition annihilation magic square antimagic squares Benjamin Franklin bimagic square chord line computation concatenation consecutive constructed contains the numbers cross cubic faces diamond digits Durer-Franklin empty cell equals the magic example four fourth dimension Fractals give the magic Heinz and Hendricks heterosquare hexagram Latin squares line segment Ma£ic Mafic magic constant magic cube magic number magic rectangle magic square shown magic sum magic tesseract main diagonal math mathematician Melencolia middle number Multiplication magic square Nikoli nine number sequence numbers 1,2 obtained odd numbers order 3 magic palindrome pandigital pattern represented pentagram perfect 16 perfect magic square prime numbers properties pyramid row gives rows and columns second column second row secondary diagonal shown in Figure Shu magic square square in Figure square of order standard magic square statistics subsquare Sudoku puzzle third column third row two-dimensional space vertical zero-dimensional space