Before the Great Spirit: The Many Faces of Sioux Spirituality
In four previous books, Julian Rice has examined the oral and written narratives of the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota in order to elucidate the core cultural values of the Sioux people. In Before the Great Spirit he explores the spiritual values that informed Sioux attitudes surrounding warriors, tricksters, spirits, games, and conflict. Countering the widespread myths that both denigrate and appropriate Indian spirituality, Rice examines accounts written in the 1830s by Congregationalist ministers Samuel and Gideon Pond and Stephen R. Riggs; Ella Deloria, a Yankton Nakota linguist; Wilson D. Wallis, a Canadian anthropologist; native Lakota George Bushotter; and physician James R. Walker in order to clearly delineate Sioux thought from the biases and perspectives of these observers. In affirming the nondogmatic and richly pluralist nature of Sioux thought and theology, Rice vigorously enters the lively scholarly debate over Native American tradition and heritage.
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animals become Belief and Ritual birds Black Elk brother buffalo Bushotter Bushotter's Canadian Dakota ceremony chapter chief Chippewa Christian clown Crazy Horse creation story creator Crow culture hero Dakota Games Dakota Texts Deloria Densmore dreamer eagle earth Elk's enemy energy evil Falling Star father fear Gideon Pond Gnaski healing heyoka holy Horse Dance human Ikto Iktomi Indian Inyan Isna Icage killed kota Lakota Belief Lakota culture Lakota language Lakota Myth Lakota spirituality lightning Little Wound live Lowie Lynd Makula man's medicine Minnesota Manuscript missionaries monotheism nagi Nagi Tanka narrative narrator Neihardt Oglala Oglala Sioux person Pond prayer Radin respect Riggs Santee Dakota shamans Sinte Gleska University Sioux Sixth Grandfather Skan songs Spider Stone Boy storytellers Sun Dance supernatural Taku Wakan Takuskanskan things Thunderbird Thunders tion tipi told tradition tribal tribe trickster Unktehi vision Vizenor Wakan Tanka Wakinyan Walker Wallis warrior Wohpe woman yuwipi