Before the Great Spirit: The Many Faces of Sioux Spirituality
In four previous books, Julian Rice has examined the oral and written narratives of the Lakota, Dakota, and Nakota in order to elucidate the core cultural values of the Sioux people. In Before the Great Spirit he explores the spiritual values that informed Sioux attitudes surrounding warriors, tricksters, spirits, games, and conflict. Countering the widespread myths that both denigrate and appropriate Indian spirituality, Rice examines accounts written in the 1830s by Congregationalist ministers Samuel and Gideon Pond and Stephen R. Riggs; Ella Deloria, a Yankton Nakota linguist; Wilson D. Wallis, a Canadian anthropologist; native Lakota George Bushotter; and physician James R. Walker in order to clearly delineate Sioux thought from the biases and perspectives of these observers. In affirming the nondogmatic and richly pluralist nature of Sioux thought and theology, Rice vigorously enters the lively scholarly debate over Native American tradition and heritage.
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animals become Belief and Ritual birds Black Elk buffalo Bushotter Bushotter's Canadian Dakota ceremony chapter Chippewa Christian Crazy Horse creation story creator Crow culture hero Dakota Games Dakota Texts Deloria Densmore dreamer eagle earth Elk's enemy energy ethnographic evil Falling Star father fear Ghost Dance Gideon Pond Gnaski healing heyoka holy Horse Dance human Ikto Iktomi Indian interviews Inyan Išna Icage Joseph Epes Brown killed kota Lakota Belief Lakota language Lakota Myth Lakota spirituality Legends Little Wound live Lowie Lynd Makula man's medicine Minnesota Manuscript missionaries monotheism monsters Nagi Tanka narrative narrator Neihardt Oglala Sioux person prayer Radin religion respect Riggs Sacred Pipe shamans Sixth Grandfather Skan Spider spirit world Stone Boy storytellers Sun Dance supernatural Taku Wakan Takuškanskan things Thunderbird Thunders tion tipi told tradition tribal tribe trickster Unktehi vision Vizenor Wakan Tanka Wakinyan Walker Wallis warrior woman Wounded Knee yuwipi