Behavior Genetic Approaches in Behavioral Medicine

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J. Rick Turner, Lon Cardon, John K. Hewitt
Springer Science & Business Media, Jun 30, 1995 - Medical - 273 pages
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Leading researchers examine how behavior genetics provides crucial insights into genetic and environmental influences in the development of biobehavioral disorders. These influences are illustrated by using the examples of cardiovascular disease, obesity and eating disorders, alcohol use and abuse, and smoking behavior. Contributors discuss the relevance of molecular genetic approaches and twin and family designs to the complex field of behavior medicine research.
 

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Contents

Behavior Genetic Approaches in Behavioral Medicine An Introduction
3
HERITABILITY AND GENETIC ANALYSIS
4
CAVEATS ABOUT HERITABILITY
5
TWIN FAMILY AND ADOPTION STUDIES
7
THE PHYSICAL BASIS OF GENETIC INHERITANCE
10
THE SEARCH FOR INDIVIDUAL GENES
11
CONCLUSIONS
12
ADDICTIVE BEHAVIORS
15
Genetic Studies of Obesity across the Life Span
145
QUESTIONS THEY CAN ANSWER ABOUT INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN OBESITY
146
CROSSSECTIONAL TWIN STUDIES
148
TWIN STUDIES OF FAT DEPOSITION AND PATTERNING
152
SUMMARY
153
STUDIES OF BIOLOGICAL PARENTS AND THEIR OFFSPRING
154
EARLYONSET OBESITY AND FAMILIAL RISK
156
ADOPTION STUDIES
157

Mediators and Moderators of Alcoholism Inheritance
17
BEHAVIOR GENETIC METHODOLOGY
18
ADOPTION STUDY DESIGN
19
GENETIC MARKER STUDIES
20
INHERITED BASIS OF ALCOHOLISM
21
TWIN STUDIES
23
GENETIC MARKER STUDIES
25
SUMMARY OF GENETIC EVIDENCE
27
MEDIATORS OF ALCOHOLISM INHERITANCE
28
Moderators of Alcoholism Inheritance
33
SUMMARY
38
REFERENCES
39
Genetic Influences on Smoking Behavior
45
WHY ARE PEOPLE STILL SMOKING?
46
How Generalizable Are These Findings?
49
WHO BECOMES A SMOKER?
52
How Generalizable Are The Findings for Smoking Initiation?
53
CAN WE EXCLUDE NONGENETIC EXPLANATIONS?
54
How Do We Explain the Genetic Influence?
55
WHY DO SMOKERS KEEP SMOKING?
56
How GENERALIZABLE ARE THE FINDINGS FOR SMOKING PERSISTENCE?
58
DISCUSSION
60
REFERENCES
63
Smoking and Addictive Behaviors Epidemiological Individual and Family Factors
67
PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS OF SMOKING
69
PERSONALITY TRAITS AND SMOKING
73
INTERGENERATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF SMOKING
74
HORIZONTAL TRANSMISSION
76
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
81
REFERENCES
83
STRESS AND REACTIVITY
85
Behavior Genetic Studies of Cardiovascular Responses to Stress
87
LABORATORY INVESTIGATION OF STRESS RESPONSES
88
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
90
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
92
LaboratoryField Generalization Studies
93
AMBULATORY MONITORING STUDIES
96
SUMMARY
99
Developmental Genetic Trends in Blood Pressure Levels and Blood Pressure Reactivity to Stress
105
BLOOD PRESSURE LEVELS
106
BLOOD PRESSURE REACTIVITY
107
TWIN STUDIES
108
BLOOD PRESSURE REACTIVITY
111
BLOOD PRESSURE REACTIVITY
114
ESTIMATION OF AGEDEPENDENT GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS WITHOUT A LONGITUDINAL DESIGN
115
Blood Pressure Levels
117
BLOOD PRESSURE REACTIVITY
121
DISCUSSION
123
REFERENCES
126
BODY WEIGHT ADIPOSITY AND EATING BEHAVIORS
131
Genetic Influences on Body Mass Index in Early Childhood
133
COLORADO ADOPTION PROJECT
134
MODELS OF DEVELOPMENT
135
PARENTOFFSPRING MODELS
136
CONTINUITY OF BODY MASS INDEX IN THE COLORADO ADOPTION PROJECT
138
ADIPOSITY REBOUND
140
CONCLUSIONS
142
IOWA ADOPTION STUDY
158
Summary
159
EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE OF TRACKING
160
GENETICALLY INFORMATIVE DESIGNS
162
SUMMARY
163
REFERENCES
164
Genetics and Eating Disorders
167
CASE DEFINITION
168
EPIDEMIOLOGY
170
DEVELOPMENTAL MODELS FOR THE EATING DISORDERS
171
STRESSORS
174
FAMILIAL TRANSMISSION OF THE EATING DISORDERS
175
FAMILY STUDIES
176
Twin Studies
177
FAMILIAL NATURE OF COMORBIDITY
179
GENETIC STUDIES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DOMAINS RELATED TO EATING DISORDERS
181
FUTURE DIRECTIONS
182
GENDER AND ETHNICITY
187
Issues in the Behavior Genetic Investigation of Gender Differences
189
IMPORTANCE OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PREVALENCE RATES
190
MEAN GENDER DIFFERENCES
194
FINAL CONSIDERATIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
198
REFERENCES
199
Studying Ethnicity and Behavioral Medicine A Quantitative Genetic Approach
201
BEHAVIOR GENETICS AND THE STUDY OF ETHNICITY
202
REGIONALITY AND CHRONIC DISEASES AMONG MINORITIES
204
APPLICATIONS IN THE STUDY OF BEHAVIORAL MEDICINE
205
Smoking
207
CARDIOVASCULAR REACTIVITY TO STRESS
208
DIFFERENTIAL HERITABILITY
209
CONCLUSIONS
210
BEYOND HERITABILITY
215
Genetics Environmental Risks and Protective Factors
217
DEVELOPMENTAL ANALYSIS
218
Molecular Genetic Analysis
219
GENETIC RESEARCH AND IDENTIFICATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES
221
NONSHARED ENVIRONMENT
222
LIFE EVENTS
224
SOCIAL SUPPORT
226
GENOTYPEENVIRONMENT CORRELATION
227
MULTIVARIATE GENETIC ANALYSIS OF GENOTYPEENVIRONMENT CORRELATION
228
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
229
REFERENCES
231
Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Genes for Complex Traits
237
GENOTYPE MEASUREMENT AND LINKAGE
238
COMPLEX PHENOTYPES
239
SIBPAIR METHODS FOR QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS LINKAGE
240
ANALYSIS OF DISCRETE TRAITS IN SIBPAIRS
244
SOME EXAMPLES OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS LINKAGE STUDIES
245
CONCLUSIONS
247
REFERENCES
248
EPILOGUE
251
Implications of a Behavior Genetic Perspective in Behavioral Medicine
253
Author Index
257
Subject Index
265
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