Behind the plough: agrarian society in nineteenth-century Hertfordshire
Agricultural developments in 19th-century Hertfordshire and their rippling effects are researched, documented, and discussed in this compelling regional history. Radical changes in the agricultural economy led to rapid social reorganization; mechanization switched the labor of farming from groups of toiling male, female, and child workers to threshing machines and reaper-binders. Changes in land enclosure, the prevailing social hierarchy, village life, and the lack of trade unions amongst farm laborers that were necessitated by such dramatic changes in agriculture are thoroughly explored.
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Enclosure of the land
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acres agricultural landowners arable Aspenden Baldock Bedfordshire Bishops Stortford Breachwood Green British Buntingford chalk Chilterns churches close parish coppice Corn Laws cottages crops cultivated depression district east economic employed employment enclosed enclosure England Essex evidence families farm workers fordshire game laws Garden City gentry HALS Hatfield Hemel Hempstead Hert Hertford Hertfordshire farmer Hexton Hitchin houses Ickleford included industry John Kimpton King's Walden Knebworth labourers land reform landlords Letchworth Little Offley lived London Lord Luton machines Midland nineteenth century nineteenth-century Hertfordshire Offley open fields open parish organised Pirton plait school plaiters plough Poor Law population proprietors prosperity railway rates rented Royston settlement shillings shire social St Albans St Paul's Walden Stevenage straw plaiting survived tenant farmers timber tion tithe trade union traditional turnpike urban Victorian village wages Watford Welwyn wheat William Wilshere women wood Wyddial Wymondley