Between Technology and Science: Exploring an Emerging Field

Front Cover
Universal-Publishers, 2005 - Science - 400 pages
This dissertation addresses emerging developer communities in a new field of science and technology as well as methods to capture exchange processes between them. It contributes to the discussion about a new mode of knowledge production and a changing division of labour between public research, industry, and government by investigating 'nanotechnology' - an emerging area between science and technology. To explore exchange processes in this field, the study applies various methods. In particular, it uses patent citation analysis. The methodological contribution is a new interpretation of this indicator, which sees patent citations as information flows that point to reciprocal exchange processes and potential overlaps between science and technology. This is in contrast to the received interpretation, which suffers from the application of a framework that was developed in the context of scholarly citation and does not fully appreciate that a patent citation is established by the patent examiner - a party external to the inventive process. Various formats of patent citation analysis describe 'nanotechnology' as a set of instrument-driven scientific fields on their way towards science-related technologies. Even though nanotechnology patents contain more patent citations to the scientific literature than other technical fields, the science and technology systems are relatively autonomous. What links them in the case of nano-science and technology is a common interest in improving techniques of nano-scale measurement and manipulation. Another finding is that both countries and firms exhibit relatively strong path-dependencies. While nanotechnology comprises a key set of technological areas - instrumentation, electronics, and pharmaceuticals/chemicals - nano-scale activities vary considerably from country to country. Also knowledge-building activities of firms follow a strong technological path-dependency. As a result, 'social capital' seems to be confined to chiefly technological or scientific trajectories. Hence, 'social capital' appears not to be very useful in explaining how knowledge is accumulated and integrated at the nano-scale. Given the central role of instrumentation and the mediated nature of exchange between science and technology at the nano- scale, public policies should be directed towards supporting education and infrastructure in the area rather than more 'direct' transfer mechanisms.

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Contents

61 Introduction
187
62 Methodology
188
622 The publication database
189
623 Limitations
190
63 Patent Citation Analysis
192
632 Patent citations by scientific and technological fields
195
633 Patent citations by organisational categories
199
634 Patent citations by scientifictechnological fields and subclasses
201

151 Foundation and Analytical Framework
25
152 Method Development
28
153 Field Exploration
29
154 Triangulation and Conclusion
32
THE EMPIRICAL PROBLEM
34
21 Introduction
35
22 Course of Proceeding
36
23 Definitions
37
24 Factual Data
41
242 NanoPatents66
46
25 Speculative Data
52
252 Technology Foresight
56
26 Issues for further investigation
63
ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK
66
31 Introduction
67
32 ScienceTechnology Literature
69
322 The relationship of science and technology
73
33 Systems approaches
79
332 Technological Systems
82
34 Knowledge Path Dependency and Learningfocused Approaches
86
342 Knowledge Management and Path Dependency
90
343 Learning in Organisations
96
35 Social Capital and Network Approaches
100
352 The Notion of Social Capital
107
36 Synthesis
111
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND PATENT CITATIONS
116
41 Introduction
117
42 Motivation
118
43 Potential Parallels
120
44 Differences between Patents and Papers
124
442 Patenting and its social and legal contexts
130
45 PatternMatching
143
46 Conclusion
146
INTERPRETING THE PATENT CITATION LINK
150
51 Introduction
151
52 Different Interpretations of Patent Citations
153
522 Linear and Twobranched Perspectives
154
53 The Role of Citations in Patents
157
Applicants and Examiners Tasks
158
532 Motives behind NPRs
160
533 Research Issues
161
54 Method
163
542 Data Collection
170
55 The Cases
172
552 Direction of the Knowledge Flow
175
553 National Differences in Examining and Patenting Practices
178
56 Discussion
180
57 Conclusions
183
COGNITIVE WEBS BETWEEN NANOSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
186
635 Patent citations by organisational and locality categories
204
636 Coactivity of potential key actors
205
64 Title word analysis
208
641 Instrumentalities
209
642 Industrial science
211
643 Different Objectives
212
644 Relation without Connection
213
65 Conclusions
214
COUNTRY COMPARISON
218
71 Introduction
219
722 Further Proceeding
221
73 Patents and Publications
223
732 Benchmarks
226
733 United States
228
734 Germany
232
735 United Kingdom
235
736 Finland
237
737 Sweden
240
738 Country comparison
242
74 Institutional Setting and Networks
244
742 Germany
249
743 United Kingdom
254
744 Finland
256
745 Sweden
260
75 Synthesis
263
MICROLEVEL CASE STUDIES
266
81 Introduction
267
82 Methodology
268
822 Data Collection
272
823 Presentation of the Evidence
273
831 Method Building
275
832 Field Exploration
278
84 Conclusions
311
CONCLUSION
314
91 Introduction
315
92 Findings
316
922 Metrics of Community Emergence
329
923 Generalised Findings
332
93 Implications
334
932 Methodological Implications
336
934 Managerial Implications
339
94 Outlook
341
REFERENCES
344
APPENDICES
362
A Case Summaries Patent Citations
363
B NanoPatents
372
Japan
394
France
398
Copyright

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