Between Technology and Science: Exploring an Emerging Field
This dissertation addresses emerging developer communities in a new field of science and technology as well as methods to capture exchange processes between them. It contributes to the discussion about a new mode of knowledge production and a changing division of labour between public research, industry, and government by investigating 'nanotechnology' - an emerging area between science and technology. To explore exchange processes in this field, the study applies various methods. In particular, it uses patent citation analysis. The methodological contribution is a new interpretation of this indicator, which sees patent citations as information flows that point to reciprocal exchange processes and potential overlaps between science and technology. This is in contrast to the received interpretation, which suffers from the application of a framework that was developed in the context of scholarly citation and does not fully appreciate that a patent citation is established by the patent examiner - a party external to the inventive process. Various formats of patent citation analysis describe 'nanotechnology' as a set of instrument-driven scientific fields on their way towards science-related technologies. Even though nanotechnology patents contain more patent citations to the scientific literature than other technical fields, the science and technology systems are relatively autonomous. What links them in the case of nano-science and technology is a common interest in improving techniques of nano-scale measurement and manipulation. Another finding is that both countries and firms exhibit relatively strong path-dependencies. While nanotechnology comprises a key set of technological areas - instrumentation, electronics, and pharmaceuticals/chemicals - nano-scale activities vary considerably from country to country. Also knowledge-building activities of firms follow a strong technological path-dependency. As a result, 'social capital' seems to be confined to chiefly technological or scientific trajectories. Hence, 'social capital' appears not to be very useful in explaining how knowledge is accumulated and integrated at the nano-scale. Given the central role of instrumentation and the mediated nature of exchange between science and technology at the nano- scale, public policies should be directed towards supporting education and infrastructure in the area rather than more 'direct' transfer mechanisms.
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622 The publication database
63 Patent Citation Analysis
632 Patent citations by scientific and technological fields
633 Patent citations by organisational categories
634 Patent citations by scientifictechnological fields and subclasses
332 Technological Systems
34 Knowledge Path Dependency and Learningfocused Approaches
342 Knowledge Management and Path Dependency
343 Learning in Organisations
35 Social Capital and Network Approaches
352 The Notion of Social Capital
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC AND PATENT CITATIONS
43 Potential Parallels
44 Differences between Patents and Papers
442 Patenting and its social and legal contexts
INTERPRETING THE PATENT CITATION LINK
52 Different Interpretations of Patent Citations
522 Linear and Twobranched Perspectives
53 The Role of Citations in Patents
Applicants and Examiners Tasks
532 Motives behind NPRs
533 Research Issues
542 Data Collection
55 The Cases
552 Direction of the Knowledge Flow
553 National Differences in Examining and Patenting Practices
COGNITIVE WEBS BETWEEN NANOSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
635 Patent citations by organisational and locality categories
636 Coactivity of potential key actors
64 Title word analysis
642 Industrial science
643 Different Objectives
644 Relation without Connection
722 Further Proceeding
73 Patents and Publications
733 United States
735 United Kingdom
738 Country comparison
74 Institutional Setting and Networks
743 United Kingdom
MICROLEVEL CASE STUDIES
822 Data Collection
823 Presentation of the Evidence
831 Method Building
832 Field Exploration
922 Metrics of Community Emergence
923 Generalised Findings
932 Methodological Implications
934 Managerial Implications
A Case Summaries Patent Citations
academic actors ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK basic research bibliometric chemicals cited COGNITIVE WEBS collaboration companies context Corporation COUNTRY COMPARISON developer community DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SCIENTIFIC electronics emergence EMPIRICAL PROBLEM engineering Espoo examiner exchange Exhibit exploration Finland Helsinki identify illustrates indicate individual industrial innovation instrumentation interaction INTERPRETING THE PATENT invention inventors journals knowledge large firms linkage Management materials materials science MICRO-LEVEL CASE STUDIES multidisciplinary nano nano-patents nano-publications nano-scale nano-science and technology nanometre nanostructured nanotechnology Narin national innovation systems networks novel NPRs op.cit organisations overlap patent citation analysis PATENT CITATION LINK patent data patent documents patent examiner path-dependencies pattern Pavitt potential prior art Proposition references relevant Research Policy Scanning tunneling microscopy Schmoch scholarly citation science and technology SCIENTIFIC AND PATENT scientific and technological scientific research papers Scientometrics sector social capital specialisation Strategic Management tacit knowledge techniques technological development technological systems title words trajectories University WEBS BETWEEN NANO-SCIENCE
Page 109 - Social capital [...] refers to features of social organization, such as trust, norms, and networks that can improve the efficiency of society by facilitating coordinated actions".
Page 40 - He sees that it has got that ring, so he mixes this and that, and he shakes it, and he fiddles around. And, at the end of a difficult process, he usually does succeed in synthesizing what he wants. By the time I get my devices working, so that we can do it by physics, he will have figured out how to synthesize absolutely anything, so that this will really be useless. But it is interesting that it would be, in principle, possible (I think) for a physicist to synthesize any chemical substance that...
Page 40 - But it is interesting that it would be, in principle, possible (I think) for a physicist to synthesize any chemical substance that the chemist writes down. Give the orders and the physicist synthesizes it. How? Put the atoms down where the chemist says, and so you make the substance. The problems of chemistry and biology can be greatly helped if our ability to see what we are doing, and to do things on an atomic level, is ultimately developed— a development which I think cannot be avoided. Now,...
Page 81 - A national system of innovation is that set of distinct institutions which jointly and individually contribute to the development and diffusion of new technologies and which provides the framework within which governments form and implement policies to influence the innovation process. As such it is a system of interconnected institutions to create, store and transfer the knowledge, skills and artefacts which define new technologies.
Page 110 - ... the evolution of social relationships. We discuss four such conditions here: time, interaction, interdependence, and closure. We argue that all four are more characteristic of internal organization than of market organization as represented in neoclassical theory and that, as a result, organizations as institutional settings are conducive to the development of high levels of social capital relative to markets. However, as we subsequently note, in practice these conditions may also occur in some...
Page 81 - the network of institutions in the public and private sectors whose activities and interactions initiate, import, modify and diffuse new technologies
Page 89 - In this article we use the term "intellectual capital" to refer to the knowledge and knowing capability of a social collectivity, such as an organization, intellectual community, or professional practice. We have elected to adopt this terminology because of its clear parallel with the concept of human capital, which embraces the acquired knowledge, skills, and capabilities that enable persons to act in new ways (Coleman, 1988). Intellectual capital thus represents a valuable resource and a capability...
Page 358 - Status and Trends in Nanoparticles, Nanostructured Materials, and Nanodevices in the United States, Proceedings of the May 8-9, 1997 Workshop, Arlington, VA, Richard W.
Page 39 - The chemist does a mysterious thing when he wants to make a molecule. He sees that it has got that ring, so he mixes this and that, and he shakes it, and he fiddles around. And, at the end of a difficult process, he usually does succeed in synthesizing what he wants. By the time I get my devices working, so that we can do it by physics, he will have figured out how to synthesize absolutely anything, so that this will really be useless. But it is interesting that it would be, in principle, possible...