Beyond Kyoto: energy dynamics and climate stabilisation
OECD/International Energy Agency, 2002 - Political Science - 162 pages
Mitigating climate change will require profound changes in world energy production and use. While the full effects of climate change are not likely to be felt for decades, the need for action is more immediate, for changes in greenhouse gas concentrations are almost irreversible. Solutions exist in the form of energy efficiency improvements, fuel switching to non-carbon sources, and carbon recovery and storage, however the long-term costs of mitigation and the precise extent of climate damage remain uncertain. This volume details the options available in the energy sector to reduce climate change and identifies mechanisms to deal with both international equity and economic uncertainty.
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Climate change and decisionmaking 19
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abatement costs achieve action adopted agreement allow ancillary benefits approach assess assigned amounts atmospheric concentrations baseline business-as-usual capita emission carbon dioxide carbon intensity carbon intensity targets carbon taxes cent Clean Development Mechanism climate change CO2 concentration coal commitment period concentration levels Contraction and convergence Convention cost-effective developing countries differentiation dynamic targets economic growth effects emission levels emission reductions emission rights emission scenario emissions trading energy efficiency energy sources energy-related CO2 emissions environmental expected fossil fuels gases GHG concentrations greenhouse gas greenhouse gas concentrations greenhouse gas emissions hybrid instrument increase industrialised countries IPCC Kyoto Protocol long-term marginal benefit curve marginal cost Marrakech mitigate climate change near-term negotiations non-binding targets OECD options pollution possible potential price cap price instruments projects quantity instruments radiative forcing renewable energy require risk stabilisation level stringent suggested technical change technologies tonnes trading regime uncertainty UNFCCC