Beyond the crystalline state: an emerging perspective
Springer, 1989 - Science - 207 pages
This is the first book to weave together into a coherent picture various recent studies of the different phases of condensed matter. Of the many known phases of condensed matter, the crystalline state has received most attention, and although noncrystalline states, for example liquid crystals, have also been extensively studied, this has been mostly without reference to interrelations between phases. This book gives an integrated overview with emphasis on physical aspects. The treatment is substantially descriptive, so although the key ideas involved are rather sophisticated the book should be accessible not only to experimental physicists but also to chemists, materials scientists, metallurgists and ceramicists whose work touches on condensed matter physics. Particular stress is laid on the role played by symmetry and symmetry breaking, and on the uses of symmetry concepts in the systematic classification of defects. The ground is also prepared for the possible future development of a field theory capable of describing both structure and dynamics. A series of technical appendices prepare the more mathematical reader for a deeper pursuit of the subject.
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Order Out of Disorder
Defects and Topology
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amorphous structures angle atoms average bond broken symmetry Chap components condensed matter configuration consider continuous group coordinates correlation function corresponding covariant derivative crystalline curved space defined denote density disclinations dislocation element entropy equilibrium ergodicity Euclidean example expansion fluctuations fluid Frank-Kasper free energy gauge field geometry given group G homotopy group hydrodynamic hydrodynamic equations icosahedral illustrated incommensurate integers invariant isomorphism Kleman Landau theory lattice Lie group line defects liquid crystals loop magnetic mapping molecules nematic obtained orbit order parameter order-parameter space orientational order orientational symmetry pair parallel transport pattern Penrose tiling phase space Phys Physics plane polytope possible projection quasicrystals quasiperiodic referred regular regular polytope relation rotation Sadoc Sect smectic solid sphere spin subgroup surface symmetry breaking symmetry group temperature tensor tessellation tetrahedra thermodynamic topological defects topological space trajectory transformation transition translational order unit cell variables vector