Bilingual Speech: A Typology of Code-Mixing
This book provides an in depth analysis of the different ways in which bilingual speakers switch from one language to another in the course of conversation. This phenomenon, known as code-mixing or code-switching, takes many forms. Pieter Muysken adopts a comparative approach to distinguish between the different types of code-mixing, drawing on a wealth of data from bilingual settings throughout the world. His study identifies three fundamental and distinct patterns of mixing - 'insertion', 'alternation' and 'congruent lexicalization' - and sets out to discover whether the choice of a particular mixing strategy depends on the contrasting grammatical properties of the languages involved, the degree of bilingual competence of the speaker or various social factors. The book synthesizes a vast array of recent research in a rapidly growing field of study which has much to reveal about the structure and function of language.
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2 Differences and similarities between languages
5 Congruent lexicalization
6 Function words
7 Bilingual verbs
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adjectives adpositions adverbs af®xes alternation analysis Bentahila and Davies bilingual bilingual speech Brussels categorial equivalence chapter clause clitics code-mixing code-switching complement complex compounds congruent lexicalization conjunctions constituent content words corpus Creole de®ned de®nition different languages discourse markers distinction Dutch embedded example Free Morpheme French function words functional categories functional elements Giesbers grammatical helping verb I-language in¯ection in¯uence in®nitive insertion involved kare language contact language pairs lexical items lexicon linear equivalence linguistic Malay matrix language Media Lengua Michif mixing patterns Moluccan Moroccan Arabic Moroccan Arabic/Dutch morphological morphological typology Muysken Myers-Scotton 1993b nominal nonce-borrowing Nortier noun phrase occur Ottersum panÇnÇi Papiamentu perspective phonological plural Poplack pre®xed prepositions pronouns Quechua relation role Sankoff Sarnami semantic sentence Spanish Spanish/English speakers speci®c Sranan strategies structure Swahili switches syntactic system morphemes Tamil Treffers-Daller 1994 Turkish typology verb phrase verbal Wolof word order