Bioactive Components of Human Milk
David S. Newburg
Springer Science & Business Media, Dec 31, 2001 - Medical - 592 pages
Although breast-feeding has long been associated with lowered infant morbid ity and mortality from infectious disease, until relatively recently little was known regarding the individual components of human milk aside from their nutritive func tions and the presence of secretory antibodies. Over the last 40 years, and especially over the last decade, evidence has been growing that human milk contains a large number of materials that are bioactive and that are not found in artificially formu latedinfantdiets. Disparatelinesofresearcharecurrentlyproducingsurprisinglylong listsofnewlyrecognizedhumanmilkcomponents-antimicrobialsand immunomod ulators, includinganti-inflammatoryagents, antioxidants, cytokines, andhormones with biological activities that relate to pathogenesis, inflammation, development, metabolic regulation, and other functions. The sum of all of these biologically active milk components may account for the strong protection that human milk affords nursing infants. Strictly speaking, most components of human milk could be considered bioac tive, since nutrients are bioactive by definition. A major emphasis of this book, how ever, is on defining what is known about components of human milk that inhibit common pathogens of the infant, those that have hormonal and/or cytokine activity, those that have immunomodulatory and/or anti-inflammatory activity, xenobiotics, and nutrients that are uniquely essential to early development. The topic of bioactive substances in human milk was explored in depth at the th 8 International Conference of the International Society for Research on Human Milk and Lactation (ISRHML) held at Plymouth, Massachusetts, October 25-29, 1997. This book contains the proceedings of that conference.
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activity amino acid analysis antibodies antigens antimicrobial bacteria binding Bioactive Components Biochem Biol bovine milk breast milk breast-fed breast-fed infants breast-feeding calcium carotenoid cimetidine Clin Nutr colostrum Components of Human concentrations cytokines diet dietary docosahexaenoic acid donor milk droplets edited by Newburg effect fatty acid composition feces feeding formula formula-fed infants function growth factor Hamosh human colostrum human milk immune system immunoglobulin Immunol increased infection inhibit intake intestinal Kluwer Academic lactadherin lactation lactoferrin lactose LC-PUFA leptin levels lipid lymphocytes lysozyme mammary epithelial cells mammary gland mammary tissue maternal membrane Mestecky metabolism mice milk banks milk fat globule milk samples months mothers mouse MUC1 mucin mucosal neonatal newborn nitrofurantoin Nutrition oligosaccharides pasteurization pathogens Patton Pediatr Pediatr Res plasma Plenum Publishers present preterm infants probiotic protective protein receptor role rotavirus secretion secretory serum sIgA specific tion toxin transgenic vitamin B12 women