Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach
Springer Science & Business Media, May 30, 2007 - Technology & Engineering - 528 pages
The study of electrophysiology has progressed rapidly because of the precise, delicate, and in- nious experimental studies of many investigators. The ?eld has also made great strides by uni- ingtheseexperimentalobservationsthroughmathematicaldescriptionsbasedonelectromagnetic ?eld theory, electrochemistry, etc. , which underlie these experiments. In turn, these quantitative materialsprovideanunderstandingofmanyelectrophysiologicalapplicationsthrougharelatively small number of fundamental ideas. This text is an introduction to electrophysiology, following a quantitative approach. The ?rst chapter summarizes much of the mathematics required in the following chapters. The second chapter presents a very concise overview of the principles of electrical ?elds and the concomitant current ?ow in conducting media. It utilizes basic principles from the physical sciences and engineering but takes into account the biological applications. The following six chapters are the core material of this text. Chapter 3 includes a description of how voltages/currents exist across membranes and how these are evaluated using the Nernst–Planck equation. The membrane channels, which are the basis for cell excitability, are described in Chapter 4. An examination of the time course of changes in membrane voltages that produce action potentials are considered in Chapter 5. Propagation of action potentials down ?bers is the subject of Chapter 6, and the response of ?bers to arti?cial stimuli, such as those used in cardiac pacemakers, is treated in Chapter 7. The voltages and currents produced by these active processes in the surrounding extracellular space is described in Chapter 8.
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Sources and Fields 2 1 Fields 2 2 Tissue Resistance and Conductance 2 3 Fields and Currents 2 4 Fields from Sources and Vice Versa 2 5 Duality 2 6 ...
AQUANTITATIVE APPROACH 7 5 Field Stimulus of an Individual Fiber
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action potential activation amplitude applied approximation assumed axial current axis axon behavior calcium capacitance cardiac cell chapter charge components concentration conductance constant core-conductor model current flow depolarization derivative described diameter dipole distance electric field electrocardiography electrode electrophysiology equation evaluated excitation experimental extracellular potential extracellular space fiber field point function given Hodgkin and Huxley Hodgkin–Huxley hyperpolarizing initial intracellular and extracellular intracellular resistivity ionic ionic current linear magnitude mathematical measured membrane capacitance membrane current msec muscle myelinated Nernst potential nerve node Note number of open open channels parameters patch plot positive potassium channels propagation region response resting potential shown in Figure sodium solution spatial squid stimulus current stimulus duration subthreshold surface threshold tissue transmembrane current transmembrane potential transmembrane voltage variables vector voltage clamp waveform zero