Bioengineering and the Skin

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, 1981 - Medical - 327 pages
R. MARKS Biology has become a 'numbers game'. The advantages of being able to grade changes in tissue, submit results to statistical analysis and accurately record biological phenomena make measurement essential. This is as true for the various disciplines in applied biology as it is for the more esoteric aspects ofthe subject. Regrettably, sk in biologists until recently had not seized the opportunities that the availability of their tissue of interest afforded and fell behind in the exploration of measurement techniques. Probably this resulted in part from the mistaken sentiment that 'to see is to know'. It also originated from the complexity ofthe skin which. as a closely interwoven mixture oftissue types. makes assessments technically difficult. However, we are optimistic about the future. The International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin was formed in Cardiff in ] uly 1979 in response to the wishes of the delegates who had attended the first International Symposium on the subject in Miami in 1976 and the second in Cardiff 3 years later. This volume is the proceedings of the Cardiff meeting. We believe that it demonstrates the brave efforts and variety of new ideas that characterise the studies of scientists who realise the importance of blending the phYSICal sciences with skin biology.
 

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Contents

Experiments and analyses a retrospect
3
International standards for instruments measurement methods and units for determination of physical properties and function of skin
9
Mechanical Properties
13
Effects of fractionated doses of Xirradiation on the mechanical properties of skin A longterm study
15
Flexural properties of human fingernails
23
Effects of treatment with prednisolone and PUVA on the mechanical properties of human skin in vivo
31
In vivo measurement of some elastic properties of human skin
45
A resonance frequency technique to determine the energy absorbed in stratum corneum in vivo
55
Indirect measures of transepidermal water loss
161
Dermatological applications of the Magiscan image analysing computer
173
A modified photometric technique for measuring sebum excretion rate
183
Determination in vivo of water concentration profile in human stratum corneum by a photoacoustic method
187
Epidermal water and electrolyte content and the thermal electrical and mechanical properties of skin
197
Xeroradiographic and ultrasound techniques in the assessment of skin disorder
215
Is there a relationship between corneocyte size and stratum corneum function in vivo
227
Relationship of intracorneal cohesion to rates of desquamation in the scaling disorders
237

The mechanism of stratum corneum plasticization with water
67
Photosclerosis induced by long wave length ultraviolet light and psoralens
75
Skin surface patterns and the directional mechanical properties of the dermis
83
The fibrous structure of the skin and its relation to mechanical behaviour
93
Mechanical properties of rat skin at high and low loads Influence of age and desmotropic drugs
97
Point impedance characterization of soft tissues in vivo
103
The gas bearing electrodynamometer GBE applied to measuring mechanical changes in skin and other tissues
113
International standardization of instruments used to determine mechanical properties of human skin
123
Changes in the mechanical properties of intact guinea pig skin resulting from ultraviolet irradiation
129
The alinear viscoelastic properties of human skin in vivo related to sex and age
135
The rheological properties of human skin and scar tissue
147
Measurement of Function and Dimension
159
Propagation of waves in hair
245
Thermal Acoustic Optical and Electrical Properties
251
Optical radiation transfer in the human skin and applications in in vivo remittance spectroscopy
253
Alternating current electrical properties of human skin measured in vivo
267
A theoretical and experimental study of the optical properties of in vivo skin
275
Dermatological photoacoustic spectroscopy
283
Ellipsometric measurement of skin refractive index in vivo
291
Influence of thermal properties and epidermal thickness on pain threshold in conductive heating
303
Quantification of thermoregulatory mechanisms in relation to psoriasis thermometry thermography and venous flow studies
311
The surface translucence meter its use in studying human skin
319
Index
325
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