## BioinstrumentationThis short book provides basic information about bioinstrumentation and electric circuit theory. Many biomedical instruments use a transducer or sensor to convert a signal created by the body into an electric signal. Our goal here is to develop expertise in electric circuit theory applied to bioinstrumentation. We begin with a description of variables used in circuit theory, charge, current, voltage, power and energy. Next, Kirchhoff's current and voltage laws are introduced, followed by resistance, simplifications of resistive circuits and voltage and current calculations. Circuit analysis techniques are then presented, followed by inductance and capacitance, and solutions of circuits using the differential equation method. Finally, the operational amplifier and time varying signals are introduced. This lecture is written for a student or researcher or engineer who has completed the first two years of an engineering program (i.e., 3 semesters of calculus and differential equations). A considerable effort has been made to develop the theory in a logical manner developing special mathematical skills as needed. At the end of the short book is a wide selection of problems, ranging from simple to complex." |

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AA/V Applying KCL bioinstrumentation capacitor closed path current and voltage current ﬂows current source currents leaving node cutoff frequency deﬁned dependent source differential equation dt dt dt electric energy stored equivalent resistance equivalent with respect essential nodes FIGURE ﬁnd Find vc ﬁnding ﬁrst following circuit following ﬁgure ideal inductor initial conditions interval inverting input Kirchhoff’s low-pass ﬁlter magnitude MATLAB mesh currents mesh-current method method to determine moves to position node equations node-voltage method noise noninverting input Norton equivalent Ohm’s law op amp open circuit operational ampliﬁer output Passband phasor domain previous equation rad/s reference node resistor respect to terminals short circuit shown in Fig signal simpliﬁes Solution solve Stopband Summing the currents Summing the voltage supernode switch instantaneously moves terminals A,B Th´evenin equivalent circuit vc and i1 voltage and current voltage divider rule voltage drops voltage source zero Ω 2 Ω

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Page 17 - To follow this discussion, the student must first grasp certain fundamental concepts of circuit analysis. It is hoped that a brief review of the concepts here employed will facilitate such an understanding.

Page 11 - Fig. 3.5, the voltage, <v, between two points (A and B), is the amount of energy required to move a charge from point A to point B.