Biological Calcification: Normal and Pathological Processes in the Early Stages

Front Cover
Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 17, 2007 - Science - 592 pages
This book follows a precursor volume devoted to biological calci?cation, - sued by the CRC Press, Boca Raton (Florida) in 1992. Several basic aspects of the calci?cation process were analyzed in it by outstanding authors who had unquestioned competence in their respective research areas. Its main aim was that of giving readers access to a series of papers which, even though they discussed divergent aspects of biological calci?cations drawn from the study of systems as different as vertebrate skeletons and mollusks, in vitro cultures and unicellular organisms, ectopic calci?cation and urinary stones, provided elements permitting a coherent approach to a comprehensive view of the calci?cation process in biological tissues. Now, almost 15 years after the publication of that book, a great variety of new data from a wide spectrum of biological organisms and systems has enriched our knowledge of the normal and pathological mechanisms which can lead to calci?cation. Even so, this whole process is still problematic: the new knowledge, concepts and ideas have often suggested that a de?nitive solution was close at hand, but the local mechanism through which the inorganic substance is laid down in organic matrices continues to be an elusive, largely enigmatic topic.
 

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Contents

93 Noncollagenous Components
267
932 Glycoproteins
272
933 Lipids
273
94 Matrix Vesicles
274
95 Concluding Remarks
283
References
285
Calcifying MatricesEnamel
302
102 Morphology of Decalcified Matrix
306

322 Neutron Diffraction
27
324 Energy Dispersive Xray Elemental Analysis EDX
28
326 Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Microscopy
29
327 Electron Spin Resonance ESR
30
329 Infrared Spectroscopy IRS
31
3211 Atomic Force Microscopy AFM
32
3212 Other Biophysical Techniques
33
332 Chromatography
34
333 Enzymelinked Assay
36
335 Sequential Dissociative Extraction
38
34 Morphological Methods
39
341 Preparative Procedures
40
343 Embedding
42
344 Decalcification
43
345 Histochemistry and Immunohistochemistry
49
35 Concluding Remarks
50
References
51
The Nature and Composition of the Inorganic Phase
67
42 Vertebrates
68
422 Cartilage Dentin Cementum Tendon
73
423 Enamel
74
43 Lower Vertebrates
77
431 Enameloid
78
432 Isopedine
79
45 Unicellular Organisms
81
46 Pathological Calcifications
83
461 Mitochondria
84
462 Vascular Calcification
85
47 Congenital or Acquired Diseases Genetically Engineered Animals
86
48 Concluding Remarks
88
References
89
The Shape of Inorganic Particles
105
522 Tendons
116
523 Dentin
118
525 Cartilage
119
526 Enamel
120
53 Lower Vertebrates
121
532 Isopedine
122
55 Unicellular Organisms
125
56 Pathological Calcifications
126
561 Calcified Mitochondria
127
57 Congenitalor Acquired Diseases Genetically Engineered Animals
128
58 Concluding Remarks
129
References
130
The Size of Inorganic Particles
145
62 Vertebrates
146
622 Tendon
149
623 Dentin
150
624 Cementum
151
626 Enamel
152
63 Lower Vertebrates
155
Unicellular Organisms
157
67 Congenital or Acquired Diseases Genetically Modified Animals
158
68 Concluding Remarks
159
References
160
Calcifying MatricesBone and Tendons
166
72 The Organic Matrix of Bone Collagen
168
73 The Organic Matrix of Bone Noncollagenous Components
175
731 Proteoglycans
176
732 Glaproteins
180
733 Glycoproteins Phosphoproteins
184
734 Lipids
197
735 Matrix Vesicles
199
74 The Organic Matrix of Tendons
200
75 Concluding Remarks
202
References
204
Calcifying MatricesDentin and Cementum
231
Proteoglycans
233
Glaproteins
236
842 Dentin Matrix Glaprotein
237
851 Phosphophoryn
238
852 Osteonectin
240
854 Dentin Sialoprotein
241
85 Acidic Glycoprotein75
242
857 Matrix Extracellular Phosphoglycoprotein
243
87 Dentin Matrix Vesicles
244
88 Cementum
245
89 Concluding Remarks
247
References
248
Calcifying MatricesCartilage
261
92 Collagen
264
103 Matrix Components
308
1031 Proteoglycans
309
1032 Lipids
310
1033 Amelogenins
311
1034 Nonamelogenins
314
104 Proteinases
319
105 Concluding Remarks
321
References
323
Calcifying MatricesLower Vertebrates
335
113 Dermal or Integumental Skeleton
336
1131 Enameloid
338
114 Concluding Remarks
340
References
341
Calcifying MatricesInvertebrates
344
123 Echinoderm Skeleton
352
124 Crustacean Cuticle
355
125 Corals
358
126 Concluding Remarks
359
References
360
Calcifying MatricesNonskeletal Structures
367
133 Pineal Gland
369
135 Unicellular Organisms
373
1351 Bacteria
374
1352 Foraminifera
376
136 Concluding Remarks
378
Calcifying MatricesPathological Calcifications
385
143 Ectopic Calcifications
387
1431 Calcification of the Kidney
388
1432 Calcification of the Myocardium and Skeletal Muscles
389
1433 Calcification of the Skin
391
1434 Calcification of Other Soft Tissues
392
1435 Calcification of Arteries
394
1436 Calcification of Implanted Cardiac Bioprosthetic Valves
401
144 Concluding Remarks
403
References
404
Calcifying Matrices Acquired or Experimental DiseasesHeritable DisordersGenetically Modified Animals
416
1522 Fibrogenesis Imperfecta Ossium
420
1524 Lathyrism
422
153 Heritable Disorders
423
1532 Dentinogenesis Imperfecta
425
1533 Amelogenesis Imperfecta
426
1534 Hypophosphatasia
428
1541 Oimoim Mice
429
1543 Mice Defective in Noncollagenous Proteins
430
155 Concluding Remarks
433
The Organicinorganic Relationships in Calcifying Matrices
443
1621 Organicinorganic Relationships in Calcification Nodules of Bone
448
1622 Organicinorganic Relationships in Calcification Islands of Bone
453
164 Organicinorganic Relationships in Enamel
460
165 Organicinorganic Relationships in Lower Vertebrates
462
166 Organicinorganic Relationships in Invertebrates
464
167 Organicinorganic Relationships in Calcified Nonskeletal Tissues
468
1672 Organicinorganic Relationships in Unicellular Organisms
469
168 Organicinorganic Relationships in Pathologically Calcified Tissues
471
169 Concluding Remarks
472
References
474
Main Suggested Calcification Mechanisms Cells
490
Tissuenonspecific Alkaline PhosphataseTNSALP
492
Matrix Vesicles
494
174 Cells and Calcification Cytoplasmic Vacuoles
497
Mitochondria
498
176 Concluding Remarks
499
References
500
Main Suggested Calcification Mechanisms Extracellular Matrix
507
Collagen Fibrils
508
Acid Proteoglycans
517
Crystal Ghosts
523
Lipids
530
Noncollagenous Proteins
531
187 Concluding Remarks
539
References
541
Conclusions
559
193 The Earliest Stage of Calcificationis an Epitaxial Process
561
194 Compartments are not an Absolute Prerequisite for Calcification
562
195 Calcificationis not a Process of Heterogeneous Nucleation
563
196 Crystal Development is a Templateguided Process
564
of Organic Components
566
References
567
Subject Index
569
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