Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo
During development cells and tissues undergo changes in pattern and form that employ a wider range of physical mechanisms than at any other time in an organism's life. This book shows how physics can be used to analyze these biological phenomena. Written to be accessible to both biologists and physicists, major stages and components of the biological development process are introduced and then analyzed from the viewpoint of physics. The presentation of physical models requires no mathematics beyond basic calculus. Physical concepts introduced include diffusion, viscosity and elasticity, adhesion, dynamical systems, electrical potential, percolation, fractals, reaction-diffusion systems, and cellular automata. With full-color figures throughout, this comprehensive textbook teaches biophysics by application to developmental biology and is suitable for graduate and upper-undergraduate courses in physics and biology.
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Elasticity and viscoelasticity
Cleavage and blastula formation
networks and phase transformations
Pattern formation segmentation axes and asymmetry
Basic mechanisms of cell pattern formation
Epithelial patterning by juxtacrine signaling
Mesoderm induction by diffusion gradients
Physical processes in the cleaving blastula
Physical models of cleavage and blastula formation
Cell states stability oscillation differentiation
Gene expression and biochemical state
How physics describes the behavior of a complex system
Oscillatory processes in early development
MuItistability in celltype diversification
Cell adhesion compartmentalization and lumen formation
Adhesion and differential adhesion in development
The cell surface
specific and nonspecific aspects
The kinetics of cell adhesion
Differential adhesion of embryonic tissues
The physics of cell sorting
Epithelial morphogenesis gastrulation and neurulation
Physical properties of epithelia
Convergence and extension
Development of the neural crest
Control of axis formation and leftright asymmetry
Development of the cardiovascular system
Fractals and their biological significance
development of the salivary gland
Vertebrate limb development
Fertilization generating one living dynamical system from two
Development of the egg and sperm
Interaction of the egg and sperm
spatiotemporal encoding of postfertilization events
Surface contraction waves and the initiation of development
Evolution of developmental mechanisms
The physical origins of developmental systems
segmentation in insects
The evolution of developmental robustness
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active axis behavior biochemical biological blastula cadherins cell cycle cell division cell types cell's cellular changes Chapter chemical chromatids chromosomes cleavage collagen complex components concentration condensation configuration constant convergent extension cortical coworkers curvature cytoplasm cytoskeletal depends developmental differential adhesion diffusion discussed Drosophila dynamical system ectoderm elastic embryo energy epithelial equation equilibrium example expression extracellular fertilization fibronectin force function gastrulation gene genetic give rise gradient individual cells initial interactions interface juxtacrine layer limb liquid meiosis mesenchymal mesoderm microtubules mitosis molecular molecules morphogen morphogenesis motion multicellular neural crest neural plate neurulation nucleus oocyte organisms oscillation pair-rule panel parameters pattern formation pattern-forming phase physical mechanisms plasma membrane polarity produce properties protein reaction-diffusion rearrangement receptors region result Salazar-Ciudad sea urchin segmentation shape signaling simulations spatial specific sperm structure surface tension tion tissue transcription factors tube typically velocity vertebrate viscosity waves Xenopus zygote
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