Biological Physics of the Developing Embryo

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Cambridge University Press, Nov 24, 2005 - Science
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During development cells and tissues undergo changes in pattern and form that employ a wider range of physical mechanisms than at any other time in an organism's life. This book shows how physics can be used to analyze these biological phenomena. Written to be accessible to both biologists and physicists, major stages and components of the biological development process are introduced and then analyzed from the viewpoint of physics. The presentation of physical models requires no mathematics beyond basic calculus. Physical concepts introduced include diffusion, viscosity and elasticity, adhesion, dynamical systems, electrical potential, percolation, fractals, reaction-diffusion systems, and cellular automata. With full-color figures throughout, this comprehensive textbook teaches biophysics by application to developmental biology and is suitable for graduate and upper-undergraduate courses in physics and biology.
 

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Contents

Biology and physics
1
The cell fundamental unit of developmental systems
6
Diffusion
8
Osmosis
15
Viscosity
16
Elasticity and viscoelasticity
21
Perspective
22
Cleavage and blastula formation
24
networks and phase transformations
138
Mesenchymal condensation
149
Perspective
154
Pattern formation segmentation axes and asymmetry
155
Basic mechanisms of cell pattern formation
157
Segmentation
162
Epithelial patterning by juxtacrine signaling
168
Mesoderm induction by diffusion gradients
171

Physical processes in the cleaving blastula
29
Physical models of cleavage and blastula formation
39
Perspective
50
Cell states stability oscillation differentiation
51
Gene expression and biochemical state
52
How physics describes the behavior of a complex system
53
Oscillatory processes in early development
57
MuItistability in celltype diversification
63
Perspective
76
Cell adhesion compartmentalization and lumen formation
77
Adhesion and differential adhesion in development
78
The cell surface
80
specific and nonspecific aspects
81
The kinetics of cell adhesion
84
Differential adhesion of embryonic tissues
90
The physics of cell sorting
95
Perspective
97
Epithelial morphogenesis gastrulation and neurulation
99
Physical properties of epithelia
100
Gastrulation
108
Convergence and extension
117
Neurulation
122
Perspective
128
Mesenchymal morphogenesis
131
Development of the neural crest
134
Reactiondiffusion systems
173
Control of axis formation and leftright asymmetry
177
Perspective
187
Organogenesis
188
Development of the cardiovascular system
190
Fractals and their biological significance
197
development of the salivary gland
204
Vertebrate limb development
210
Perspective
222
Fertilization generating one living dynamical system from two
223
Development of the egg and sperm
224
Interaction of the egg and sperm
233
spatiotemporal encoding of postfertilization events
236
Surface contraction waves and the initiation of development
242
Perspective
247
Evolution of developmental mechanisms
248
The physical origins of developmental systems
249
segmentation in insects
256
The evolution of developmental robustness
262
Perspective
272
Glossary
273
References
291
Index
327
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Page 304 - Hynes, RO (1992). Integrins: versatility, modulation, and signaling in cell adhesion.
Page 311 - Miyazaki, S., Shirakawa, H., Nakada, K., and Honda, Y. (1993). Essential role of the inositol 1,4,5trisphosphate receptor/Ca2+ release channel in Ca2+ waves and Ca2+ oscillations at fertilization of mammalian eggs. Dev. Biol. 158, 62-78.
Page 314 - N (1998) Randomization of left-right asymmetry due to loss of nodal cilia generating leftward flow of extraembryonic fluid in mice lacking KIF3B motor protein. Cell 95: 829-837.
Page 293 - Bissell. MJ and Barcellos-Hoff. MH ( 1987) The influence of extracellular matrix on gene expression: Is structure the message?
Page 312 - Newgreen. DF and Minichiello, J. (1995). Control of epitheliomesenchymal transformation. I. Events in the onset of neural crest cell migration are separable and inducible by protein kinase inhibitors. Dev. Biol. 170, 91-101.
Page 291 - WJ (1996) Mechanism for transition from initial to stable cell-cell adhesion: kinetic analysis of E-cadherin-mediated adhesion using a quantitative adhesion assay. J Cell Biol 134: 549-558.
Page 312 - Cell binding function of E-cadherin is regulated by the cytoplasmic domain. EMBO J., 7: 3679-3684, 1988.
Page 307 - Planar induction of convergence and extension of the neural plate by the organizer of Xenopus. Dev. Dyn.
Page 305 - Fast block to polyspermy in sea urchin eggs is electrically mediated. Nature 261: 68-71 (1976).

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