Biology of Fibrous Composites: Development Beyond the Cell Membrane
This book is the first devoted to this subject. It tackles a major unsolved problem in developmental biology - how does chemistry create architecture outside cells? Fibrous composites occur in all skeletal systems including plant cell walls, insect cuticles, moth eggshells, bone and cornea. They function like man-made fibreglass, with fibres set in a matrix. The underlying hypothesis of this book is that the fibres are orientated by self- assembly just outside the cells during a mobile liquid crystalline phase prior to stabilization
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Abeysekera acid algae angle architecture arthropod assembly axis basement lamella biological birefringence bone Bouligand Caveney cell walls cellulose cellulose microfibrils chains chitin chitin crystallites chitin microfibrils chitin orientation cholesteric liquid crystals chorion collagen collagen fibrils component cornea Coulombre cuticle cylinder deposited diagram directions eggs electron micrographs electron microscopy endocuticle epidermal cells example exocuticle extracellular fibrous composites Figure fish eggshells Giraud-Guille Hamodrakas helices helicoidal cell walls helicoidal layers helicoidal structure helicoidal systems helicoidal walls helix hemicelluloses insect cuticle lamella laminated locust matrix mechanical microfibril orientation microfibrils microscope microtubules molecular molecules moth eggshells mucilage nematic liquid crystals Neville & Luke oblique section orthogonal parallel periostracum periplasm permission plane plant cell plant cell walls plasma membrane plywood polysaccharides pore canals proteins pseudo-orthogonal quince ranks of arced Redrawn resilin Roland rotation secreted seen self-assembly sequence shape show arced patterns shown sidechains species surface tendons tion tracheids twisted nematic types vertebrate
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Cellulosic Materials: Fibers, Networks, and Composites
No preview available - 2001