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abundance acid acidification Alderfen Broad algae algal aluminium ammonia animals aquatic Ardleigh Reservoir ASPT assessment bacteria biological biomass BMWP score brown trout cadmium catchment cause cent changes chemical chironomids compounds concentrations contamination copper cyanobacteria decline decrease density developed diatom discharge diversity dominated downstream ecology ecosystems eels effects effluent environment environmental eutrophication example factors fauna filters fish fisheries flow freshwater growth heavy metals hydrocarbons increase indices invertebrates lakes large numbers larvae levels macroinvertebrates macrophytes Mason mercury mg kg-1 microorganisms monitoring Moss nitrate nitrogen nuclear nutrients occur oligotrophic organic pollution organochlorine otter oxidation oxygen pathogens PCBs phosphate phosphorus phytoplankton plankton plants pollution populations predation problems production radioactivity rainbow trout reduced reservoir result river salmon sampling sediment sensitive sewage treatment species standard streams studies survey tanks temperature tests tolerant toxic tubificid Wales waste water industry water quality zinc zooplankton