Biology of the Hard Clam
J.N. Kraeuter, M. Castagna
Gulf Professional Publishing, Apr 26, 2001 - Science - 772 pages
The hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, is an important commercial, recreational and ecological inhabitant of coastal bays along the east and gulf coasts of the United States. This title represents the first state of the art summary of existing knowledge of the hard clam by experts in various disciplines.
Containing a compendium of literature on the hard clam, comprehensive chapters on various aspects of its biology as well as summaries of knowledge including the gray literature on this economically important species, this volume represents a comprehensive source of biological information for managers and researchers interested in shallow marine and estuarine ecosystems. Research students and managers charged with maintaining coastal ecosystems will also find a wealth of background material.
The first synthesis of available information on the mercenaria mercenaria, this title is a response to the needs of individuals involved in hard clam aquaculture and scientists interested in molluscan biology, coastal ocean ecology and similar fields. Over 2300 documents have been synthesized, and chapter authors have added unpublished information as well as new material.
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abundance adductor muscle adult algal Ansell Aquaculture areas benthic Biol bivalves Bivalvia blue crabs Bricelj campechiensis Carcinus maenas Carriker Castagna cells clam density clam Mercenaria mercenaria clam seed cockles concentration consumed Crassostrea virginica culture diet eastern oyster Ecol Ecology effects eggs epithelium estuary Eversole factors feeding Fish fishery flow gametogenesis gametogenic genetic gland gonad growth rate habitat hard clam Mercenaria hard clams harvest hatchery hemocytes hemolymph increased indicated individuals infaunal ingestion interactions intertidal invertebrates juvenile Kraeuter laboratory larvae layer Loosanoff Macoma balthica Malouf mantle Manzi marine Mercenaria mercenaria molluscs mortality mussels Mya arenaria Mytilus edulis North Carolina oystercatchers pallial particles pediveligers Peterson plantigrades posterior predation prey quahog range recruitment reported reproductive salinity sampling sand scallops seagrass seawater Securella sediment Seston shell length Shellfish Res snails soft-shell clams spawning species starfish studies substrate temperature tissue valves veligers Venus mercenaria whelks