Biomarker Methods in Drug Discovery and Development
Springer Science & Business Media, Mar 11, 2008 - Medical - 396 pages
The pharmaceutical industry has faced many significant challenges since the early 1990s. The fundamental issue that needs to be addressed is how to improve the efficiency of drug discovery and development. The current research and development (R&D) cost for developing a new therapeutic drug is greater than $800 million. Additionally, it takes an average of 12 years to get a new drug to market with an attrition rate greater than 90%. Reviewing the overall pharmaceutical R&D process, it has become clear that many of the drug failures are due to our lack of knowledge in population diversity, which is responsible for differences in drug efficacy and toxicity. In fact, not a single approved drug is 100% safe and efficacious for all patients. For researchers, the key question is: How can we discover biomarkers that can be used to distinguish patients who will respond to the drug without adverse effects from those who will not respond and/or will have adverse effects? There is tremendous urgency to address this question. Biomarkers also fit perfectly with the vision of personalized medicine, the new expectation of medical practice. This is why biomarker research has been a central focus in many research labs across academia, government agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry. There are many different ways to define biomarkers based on molecular properties, applications, and methods.
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0.150 Glycerophospholipid species acid Anal Chem analysis analytes antibody antibody microarrays applications array assay Biol biological biomarker discovery blood buffer cancer cDNA cell centrifuge chip chromatography clinical column compounds concentration cycles database derivatization detection differential diluted disease ditags DNA methylation Drug Discovery electrophoresis eluted endometrium ethanol fragments GC-MS gene expression profiles genome Glycerophospholipid GPLs human identified Incubate IPG strip labeling laser capture microdissection levels Linker lipid markers mass spectrometry mass tagging metabolic profiling metabolites metabolomics methods methylation microarray molecular multiple NMR spectroscopy optimal peak peptide plasma plate potential predictive primer protein ProteinChip proteomics protocol Pyrosequencing quantitative reaction reagent real-time PCR room temperature sample scanning SDS-PAGE SELDI sensitivity sequence serum signal signatures slides solution specific spectra spectroscopy spot standard statistical studies TaqMan target tissue toxicity toxicogenomics toxicology transcripts tubes urine VEGF wash