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Rainfall and the Descent of Water Droplets
The Descent of Ice Crystals Hailstones and Snow
The Airborne Dispersal of Fruits and Seeds
6 other sections not shown
aerodynamic drag aerodynamic force aerodynamic lift aerofoil aircraft airspeed airstream albatross altitude angle of incidence approximately aspect ratio aspect ratio wings atmosphere bats bird flight bird's birds body boundary layer chord columnar crystals component density descend diameter direction distance downstroke drag coefficient drag force dynamic soaring dynamic viscosity energy equation Figure flapping flight flight speed flight style fluid flying form drag fruit gliding flight groundspeed hailstones high Reynolds numbers horizontal flight hovering flight ice crystals increase inertial forces insects leading edge lift coefficient lift force lift-dependent drag mass maximum minimum drag speed motion moving muscles particles path pressure profile drag Pteranodon pterosaurs raindrop range relative result Reynolds number rotation samara seeds shape sinking speed soaring species sphere stroke plane surface terminal velocity thrust trailing edge typical upstroke vertical vortex drag wake weight whilst wind wing loading wing movement wing span wing tip wingbeat frequency