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7 WhyJDo We Test the Null Hypothesis?
mostly about statistics
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1965 conclusion 40 year olds 9th month age-adjusted rates alternate hypothesis average calculate cardiovascular disease case-control study chance cholesterol clinical trial cohort comparison confidence interval confidence limits confounding variable control group coronary correlation coefficient critical value cross-sectional death rates degrees of freedom denominator diastolic blood pressure diet drug group effect epidemiology estimate event example false-positive Figure heart attack heart disease hematocrit high blood pressure hypertension incidence rate independent variables individuals inferences longitudinal lung cancer measure mmHg multiple non-diseased null hypothesis number of deaths observed obtained patients persons placebo population mean positive test predictive value prevalence probability proportion prospective studies randomization regression reject the null relationship relative risk sample mean scores Section sensitivity significance level small trial smoking specificity square standard deviation standard error standard population statistical Suppose Survival analysis surviving t-test theory toss total number two-tail test Type I error value of chi-square