Biotechnology: Bridging Research and Applications: Proceedings of the U.S.-Israel Research Conference on Advances in Applied Biotechnology Biotechnology June 24-30, 1990; Haifa, Israel

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Daphne Kamely, A.M. Chakrabarty, Steven E. Kornguth
Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 31, 1991 - Science - 459 pages
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Biotechnology is advancing at a rapid pace with numerous applications in medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental remediation. Recognizing this, government, industrial and academic research and development invest ment in biotechnology has expanded rapidly. The past decade has seen the emergence of applications of this technology with a dual-use potential. Mili tary applications focus on four major areas: biomedical technology, such as vaccine development and medical diagnostics; detection of toxins, chemicals and pathogens; material biotechnology; and biological decontamination, in cluding biodegradation and bioremediation. This conference emphasizes the non-medical applications of biotechnol ogy. The first two sessions focus on the synthesis and properties of molecules that may be used in detectors. The traditional approach to detection of chemical and biological agents relied on the development of specific assays or analyses for known agents. Advances in molecular biology have made possible the production of large quantities of toxins which were previously available in minute quantities, and the molecular engineering of toxins and pathogens with specific pharmacologic and physical-chemical properties. In addition to the traditional approaches to detection of specific known compounds, biotechnology now offers generic approaches to detection. Physiological targets, known as receptors, are primary targets for many drugs and toxins. Similarly, pathogens rely on receptors to gain access to cells. These receptors function as sensitive detectors, generating signals which are transduced and amplified.
 

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Contents

Biological Applications of Synthetic Polypeptides
1
Manufacturing and Biotechnology Synergisms for the Early 2000s
15
Biosensors Based on Solvated Bilayers Attached to Electrodes
43
Alternatives to Radioimmunoassay
63
The Use of Intact Luminous Bacteria in Analytical Chemistry Clinical Microbiology and Acute Toxicity
79
Deposition of Enzymes by Electropolymerization
89
Computerized Biospecific Electrodes
95
NMRStructural Studies of Membrane Bound Peptides and Proteins
109
Bacterial Heavy Metal Resistance Systems and Possibility of Bioremediation
265
Structure and Application
289
Outdoor Cultivation of Microalgae in a Closed System for the Production of Valuable Biochemicals
301
Chemical Sensing Applications of Semiconductor Photoluminescence
317
High Speed DNA Sequencing and the Analysis of the Human Genome
333
Biocatalysed Photosynthesis and Photoregulation of Enzymes
341
Modifying Specificities of Restriction Enzymes
371
Pulsed Laser Fluorometry for Environmental Monitoring
377

DNA as a Biosensor for Environmental Agents
127
Detection of Pathogens with Nucleic Acid Probes
141
StructureFunction Relationships In Vivo Mutability and Gene Amplification in Human Cholinesterases Targets for Organophosphorous Poisons
153
Assessment of Genetic Damage in Human Tissue by Immunoassay
167
Field Operable Devices for Immunological Molecular and Toxicological Diagnosis A Review on a Unified Approach
179
Design and Properties of Enzymes Immobilized in SolGel Glass Matrices
205
Microbial Degradation of Agent Orange and Mustard Related Compounds
221
Surface Active and DragReducing Bacterial Polymers
231
Towards Catalytic Antibodies for the Degradation of Toxic Agents
249
A Molecular Target for AIDS Therapeutics
401
AntibodyCatalyzed Concerted Chemical Reactions
413
Engineering Altered Substrate Specificity into Subtilisin BPN
429
Summary of Conference
441
Concluding Discussion
445
List of Participants
451
Index
457
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