Biotechnology: Products of primary metabolism
Fermentation products of primary metabolism such as ethanol, acetic acid, and lactic acid were the first commercial products of the fermentation industry, followed by citric acid and related products of fungal origin. As high-volume/low-price products they still occupy top positions in the respective markets. Several of these, especially alcohols, have attracted additional attention as possible sources of alternative energy carriers and chemicals. This volume describes theory and practice of production of these commodities - from classical processes to most recent developments - and also provides data on the relevant raw materials. Futhermore, products related to primary metabolism are treated in this volume.
Topics included are: Sugar-Based/Starch-Based Raw Materials - Ethanol - Glycerol and Other Polyols - Acetone, Butanol, Isopropanol - 2,3-Butanediol - Lactic Acid - Citric Acid - Gluconic Acid - Further Organic Acids - Acetic Acid - PHB and Other Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acids - Amino Acids - Nucleotides - Extracellular Polysaccharides - Biosurfactants
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8 Lactic Acid
Roehr J S KaScdk J Kominek M Roehr
Raw Materials and Raw Material M Roehr C P Kubicek J Kominek
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accumulation acetic acid Acetobacter acetone acid fermentation acid production activity addition Agric alcohol amino acids Appl applications Aspergillus niger ATCC Bacillus Bacteriol batch beet Biochem Bioeng Biol biosurfactants biosynthesis Biotechnol Brevibacterium butanediol butanol carbon source catalyzes cells Chem chemical citric acid cloned Clostridium acetobutylicum coli concentration culture degradation dehydrogenase distillation duced duction emulsions enzymatic enzyme Escherichia coli ethanol ethanol production eutrophus extract fermentation formation fructose fuel gene gluconic acid glucose glutamicum glycerol growth hydrolysis hydrolyzed immobilized industrial inosine l-lysine l-tryptophan lactic acid Lett lipids medium mentation metabolism mg mL-1 microbial Microbiol microorganisms molasses molecular mutants nucleotide oxygen pathway PHA synthase phosphate plasmid poly(3HB polyester polymer polysaccharide protein Pseudomonas pyruvate racemase raw materials reaction recycle saccharification solvent starch Steinbuchel stillage strain substrate subtilis sucrose sugar surfactants synthesis syrups Technol temperature tion triticale U.S. Patent xanthan yeast yield zyme