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according to DSM activity acute mania acute treatment antiepileptic antiepileptic agents antimanic efficacy atypical antipsychotic atypical antipsychotic agents benzodiazepines bipolar affective disorder bipolar depression bipolar disorder bipolar patients Calabrese calcium antagonist carbamazepine Clin clinical clozapine co-morbidity Combination therapy controlled studies course Cyclothymia depressive episodes depressive phase diagnosis diseases Dosages dose double-blind duration dysphoric mania efficacy demonstrated electroconvulsive therapy elevated especially etal euphoric mania exhibit frequent gabapentin genes genetic Grunze hypomania hypomanic hypomanic episode illness increase intracellular calcium lamotrigine lithium level lithium therapy long-term manic episode medication metabolism mg/day mild mixed episode monotherapy mood stabilizers nimodipine occur olanzapine open studies oxcarbazepine patients with bipolar placebo plasma level possible prophylactic prophylaxis protein Psychiat Psychiatry quetiapine rapid cycling patients receptor recurrence relapse risk risperidone serotonin re-uptake inhibitors serum level side effects sleep sub-syndromal substances suicide switch Table therapeutic tients treatment of acute treatment of bipolar unipolar valproate ziprasidone
Page 17 - The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.
Page 17 - ... 6) increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation 7) excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (eg engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments) C.
Page 19 - The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is uncharacteristic of the person when not symptomatic. D. The disturbance in mood and the change in functioning are observable by others.
Page 17 - B. During the period of mood disturbance, three (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree: 1 . Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity 2.
Page 18 - The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (eg a drug of abuse, a medication...
Page 18 - Mild: Few, if any, symptoms in excess of those required to make the diagnosis, and the symptoms result in no more than mild impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others. Moderate: Symptoms or functional impairment between "mild
Page 23 - A For at least 2 years the presence of numerous periods with hypomanic symptoms and numerous periods with depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for a major depressive episode. Note: In children and adolescents the duration must be at least...
Page 17 - During the period of mood disturbance, three (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree: (1) inflated self-esteem or grandiosity (2) decreased need for sleep (eg, feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep...
Page 23 - ... and numerous periods with depressive symptoms that do not meet criteria for a Major Depressive Episode. Note: In children and adolescents, the duration must be at least 1 year. B. During the above 2-year period ( 1 year in children and adolescents), the person has not been without the symptoms in Criterion A for more than 2 months at a time.
Page 19 - Hypomanic Episode^ A. A distinct period of persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting throughout at least 4 days, that is clearly different from the usua nondepressed mood.