Black workers in white unions: job discrimination in the United States
Gathers evidence showing that both unions and employers have vigorously evaded the provisions of the 1964 federal fair-employment practices statute in hiring, promotion, transfer, seniority, and leadership representation
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2d Cir 5th Cir Accordingly action affirmative action AFL-CIO applicants apprentices apprenticeship program arbitration award back pay basis black employees black workers cert construction contract contractors Corp craft unions decision decree defendants denied Department Detroit Edison discriminatory disputes district court EEOC effect election employment discrimination employment opportunities Emporium Capwell exclusive fact federal Fifth Circuit filed Gardner-Denver grievance Griggs held industry involved issue journeymen Judge Lindberg Justice labor organization litigation membership ment minority workers Moreover Motors N.D. Cal negotiated Negro NLRB number of blacks parties past discrimination percent picketing plaintiffs Plan ployees position practices problems procedures protected quota race racial discrimination referral refusal relief remedy representation representative Section segregated seniority system skilled statute Steelworkers substantial Supp Supreme Court Teamsters tion Title VII UCWA unfair labor practice union United United Steelworkers unlawful violation walkout white workers