Body Image as a Correlate of Generalized Anxiety and Depression Among South African Adolescents
GRIN Verlag, 2011 - 156 pages
Doctoral Thesis / Dissertation from the year 2011 in the subject Psychology - Developmental Psychology, Atlantic International University, language: English, abstract: The main objective of this study was to conduct an empirical investigation to gather information from adolescents in the Pretoria area as to their level of body image dissatisfaction, anxiety and depression. This information was used to identify whether correlations exist between these three variables for South African youth. A literature study was conducted and the following hypotheses were developed for study: I. Adolescent females report higher (more severe) levels of body image dissatisfaction than males. II. Depression rates among South African adolescents have a female-to-male ratio of 2:1. III. Depression prevalence rates among South African adolescents are lower than their American counterparts. IV. Adolescent females display higher levels of anxiety than their male counterparts. V. A significant positive correlation exists between levels of body image dissatisfaction and levels of depression. VI. A significant positive correlation exists between levels of body image dissatisfaction and feelings of anxiety. VII. There is a significant positive correlation between levels of depression and anxiety in South African adolescents. The gathering of quantitative data took the form of a structured questionnaire comprising four distinct sections: demographic information, the Body Image Satisfaction scale, the Choate Depression Inventory for Children (CDIC), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale. The questionnaire was administered to Grade 8-12 learners (aged 13-19 years old) to three different high school in the area, both independent and public schools. The sample group was randomly selected and yielded 350 completed questionnaires.
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adolescent depression adolescent’s Afrikaans antidepressant anxiety and depression anxiety disorders ANXLEVEL ANXRAW appearance anxiety baie Barlow & Durand behaviour BIDRAW bipolar disorder Body Dysmorphic Disorder body image dissatisfaction body image problem body-image boys child Choate Depression Inventory cognitive cognitive therapy common Cross tabulation DEPRAW depressed adolescents depressed mood depression and anxiety depression in adolescents depressive symptoms dikwels Dysthymia emotional feelings Gauteng girls Grade Hospital Anxiety Hypothesis indicated learners levels of anxiety levels of body levels of depression look major depressive major depressive disorder McIntosh & Livingston Mild moderate to severe mood disorders negative ofthe one’s onset parents Pearson product peers Phillips physical appearance Pretoria prevalence rates product moment correlation psychological puberty questionnaire raw scores Reber & Reber respondents were female result risk factors sample group Scatterplot screening tools self-esteem social South African adolescents statistics suggest symptoms of depression teenagers therapy voorkoms Willson & Clarke