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Recent failures o? bolted connections have raised doubts Page
known for up to four bolts in a row ln summarizing
requirements in current multiplebolt design for Douglasfir Discussion
12 Main member analysis bolt diameter bolt patterns bolted connections bolthole Canadian Standards Association connection strength connections with steel Douglas-fir Doyle and Scholten edge distance requirements elastic theory embedment yield stress end distance European Yield Theory experimental results fabrication tolerances finite element analysis four bolts fracture mechanics Grenoble Hirai and Sawada Kunesh and Johnson L2/D Figure L2/D ratios corresponding L2/D values larger L2/D ratios limit Trayer 1932 load distribution load European Yield main member thickness Main member thickness/bolt member thickness/bolt diameter Mode l failures modifying factors moisture content multiple-bolt connections number of bolts Parallel-to-grain loading Sy perpendicular-to-grain loading preservative or fire proportional limit load Ratio of main row of bolts single-bolt connections Sitka spruce small L2/D ratios Soltis staggered or symmetric steel side members steel side plates thickness to bolt three-member connections Wilkinson 1978 wood side members wood side plates yield load European yield strength yield theory curves zero L2/D