Boosting Innovation: The Cluster Approach
OECD Publications, Jun 24, 1999 - Business & Economics - 427 pages
Both firms, keen to improve their competitiveness, and governments, keen to exploit new sources of economic and social progress, need to understand how innovation works in order to better stimulate it. The paradox of innovation is that it uses co-operation to enhance competition and to link many different actors in innovative clusters. In a knowledge-based economy, these clusters of innovative firms form around sources of knowledge. They are based on a sophisticated infrastructure in which knowledge is developed, shared and exchanged, and are characterised by highly concentrated and effective links between entrepreneurs, investors and researchers. Clusters can take a variety of forms, depending on their main technological and commercial areas of specialisation. In most cases they operate within localised geographical areas and interact within larger innovation systems at the regional, national and international level. With globalisation, dynamic clusters are becoming key factors in a country's capacity to attract the international investment that generates new technological expertise, to interest investors in innovation (venture capital, etc.) and to benefit from the international mobility of skilled personnel. This book reviews the latest economic research on these issues, shows how technology policy makers in OECD countries are making practical use of the concept of clusters and suggests how government policies to foster innovation might best be refocused.
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Introduction by Jean Guinet
A New Approach and a Toolbox
Norwegian InputOutput Clusters and Innovation Patterns
14 other sections not shown
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agencies Austrian biotechnology business clusters centres chemicals cluster analysis cluster approach cluster concept cluster policy cluster studies cluster-based policy co-operation collaboration common companies competitive advantage complex construction countries Danish DeBresson Denmark Dutch dynamic economic development electronics emergence employment enterprises equipment example export external factors Finland Finnish firms flows focus focused framework conditions growth I/O tables identified implementation important industrial clusters industrial policy industry groups infrastructure innovation policy innovative activity innovative clusters input-output input-output analysis inputs inter-firm interaction interdependencies investment KIBS knowledge base linkages manufacturing matrices methodology Ministry National Innovation Systems needs Netherlands network brokers North Carolina OECD organisations Peneder policy makers potential production R&D intensity regional development resource areas Roelandt role sectors share SMEs sources specific strategies structure systems of innovation technology policy telecommunications trade UNIDO United Kingdom users value chain