Bootstrapping Democracy: Transforming Local Governance and Civil Society in Brazil
Stanford University Press, Jun 1, 2011 - Social Science - 224 pages
Despite increasing interest in how involvement in local government can improve governance and lead to civic renewal, questions remain about participation's real impact. This book investigates participatory budgeting—a mainstay now of World Bank, UNDP, and USAID development programs—to ask whether its reforms truly make a difference in deepening democracy and empowering civil society. Looking closely at eight cities in Brazil, comparing those that carried out participatory budgeting reforms between 1997 and 2000 with those that did not, the authors examine whether and how institutional reforms take effect. Bootstrapping Democracy highlights the importance of local-level innovations and democratic advances, charting a middle path between those who theorize that globalization hollows out democracy and those who celebrate globalization as a means of fostering democratic values. Uncovering the state's role in creating an "associational environment," it reveals the contradictory ways institutional reforms shape the democratic capabilities of civil society and how outcomes are conditioned by relations between the state and civil society.
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activists actors affirmative democracy assemblies autonomy Baiocchi binding bootstrapping Brazil Brazilian Camaragibe Campaign capacity chain of sovereignty challenge Chapter citizens citizenship civil society organizations clientelism clientelistic consultative context councilors created CSOs decentralization decision-making delegates deliberative demand-making demands democratic Diadema direct discussion districts effect elected elites emerged focused formal Gravataí impact of PB implementation increased innovation inputs institutional design institutional reforms institutionalized introduced introduction of PB João Monlevade Kerala literature Mauá mayor mediation ment microdistricts mobilized democracy mode of engagement municipal government municípios neighborhood associations norms pairs panchayat Participatory Administration Participatory Budgeting participatory democracy participatory process participatory reforms Paulo PB cities PB process percent planning PMDB popular population Porto Alegre practices projects PSDB PT administration Quixadá range regimes representative representative democracy respondents role São Paulo Sapucaia Sapucaia do Sul sectors self-organization significant social movements South Africa spaces specific structures Timóteo tion traditional transformation union urban