Bottom Soils, Sediment, and Pond Aquaculture

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 31, 1995 - Nature - 348 pages
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Aquaculture pond managers measure water-quality variables and attempt to maintain them within optimal ranges for shrimp and fish, but surprisingly little attention is paid to pond soil condition. Soil-water interactions can strongly impact water quality, and soil factors should be considered in aquaculture pond management. The importance of soils in pond management will be illustrated with an example from pond fertilization and another from aeration. Pond fertilization may not produce phytoplankton blooms in acidic ponds. Total alkalinity is too low to provide adequate carbon dioxide for photosynthesis, and acidic soils adsorb phosphate added in fertilizer before phytoplankton can use it. Agricultural lime stone application can raise total alkalinity and neutralize soil acidity. The amount of limestone necessary to cause these changes in a pond depends on the base unsaturation and exchange acidity of the bottom soil. Two ponds with the same total alkalinity and soil pH may require vastly different quantities of limestone because they differ in exchange acidity. Aeration enhances dissolved oxygen concentrations in pond water and permits greater feed inputs to enhance fish or shrimp production. As feeding rates are raised, organic matter accumulates in pond soils. In ponds with very high feeding rates, aeration may supply enough dissolved oxygen in the water column for fish or shrimp, but it may be impossible to maintain aerobic conditions in the surface layers of pond soil. Toxic metabolites produced by microorganisms in anaerobic soils may enter the pond water and harm fish or shrimp.
 

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Contents

Soils in Pond Aquaculture
1
13 Critical Soil Properties
4
14 Reactions and Processes
5
15 Soils and Aquacultural Production
6
17 Pond Soil Analysis
7
18 Prospectus
8
Physical Chemical and Mineralogical Properties of Soils
10
22 Soil
11
43 Transport of Dissolved Substances
120
44 Examples of Exchange Phenomena in Ponds
129
Soil Organic Matter and Aerobic Respiration
149
52 Microbial Physiology
152
53 Biochemical Compounds
160
54 Soil Organic Matter
167
55 Soil Respiration
174
56 Organic Matter Concentrations
180

23 Particle Size in Soils
18
24 Organic Matter
21
25 Soil Density and Pore Space
24
26 Soil Water
27
27 Gases
35
28 Soil Colloids
36
29 Color
40
210 1on Exchange
41
211 Acidity
44
212 Soil pH
50
213 Soil Classification
51
214 Soil Maps
57
215 Pond Soils
66
Soil Nutrients
69
32 Soil Solution
70
33 Chemical Equilibrium
71
34 Macronutrient Cations
81
35 Bicarbonate and Carbonate
82
36 Nitrogen
83
37 Sulfur
86
38 Phosphorus
87
39 Silicon
94
310 Micronutrient Cations
95
311 Micronutrient Anions
99
Exchange of Dissolved Substances between Soil and Water
113
42 Exchange Between Soil Particles and Water
114
Soil Organic Matter Anaerobic Respiration and OxidationReduction
194
62 OxidationReduction Reactions
195
63 OxidationReduction Potential
196
64 Anaerobic Respiration
205
65 Reduced Soils
209
Sediment
219
72 Sources of Sediment
220
73 Principles of Sedimentation
229
74 Sediment Control
240
Relationships to Aquatic Animal Production
253
83 Soil Condition and Fish Production
258
84 Effects of Aquatic Animals on the Soil
264
Pond Bottom Management
267
93 Bottom Soil Sterilization
277
94 Oxidation of Bottom Soil
281
95 Sediment
295
96 Summary
300
Pond Bottom Soil Analyses
304
Gravimetric Analysis of Water Content
317
105 Bulk Density Particle Density and Porosity
321
106 Organic Matter
323
107 Soil Respiration
326
108 Soil pH and Lime Requirement
331
109 Nutrients
338
INDEX
341
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About the author (1995)

Claude E. Boyd is in the Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures at Auburn University, Alabama.

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