Brain Circuits and Functions of the Mind: Essays in Honor of Roger Wolcott Sperry, Author

Front Cover
Cambridge University Press, Jan 26, 1990 - Medical - 410 pages
In the history of American neuroscience, Roger Sperry and his contribution are outstanding. In this book, over twenty of his students, research colleagues and scientific friends, themselves all notable neuroscientists, review fifty years of his tireless experimentation and brilliant theoretical argument, also reviewing their own work in the context of Sperry's contributions to their fields. Sperry's challenging and controversial theories are very much alive in contemporary brain science, cognitive psychology and the philosophy of mind. Curiosity about the most difficult questions, such as those concerning conscious awareness, memory and volition led Sperry from the study of the control of complex patterns in brain circuit growth to discovery of the split brain phenomenon, which illuminated how the two halves of the brain integrate their different functions. In revolutionary tests on patients whose hemispheres had been disconnected to prevent the build-up of severe epileptic seizures, two complementary realms of mind were revealed, one verbal and rational ('left brain') nd the other more spatial, metaphorical and intuitive ('right brain'). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for this work in 1981. Although this book is written for students and researchers in the fields of psychology and neuroscience, it will hold interest for any reader who is curious about the workings of the mind and the brain.
 

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Contents

Contributors
x
Coordination of movement as a key to higher brain function Roger W Sperrys contributions from 1939 to 1952
xiii
Roger W Sperrys lifework and our tribute
xxvii
Specification of behavioral nerve networks in invertebrates
1
Ontogenesis of neuronal nets The chemoaffinity theory 19631983
3
The rebellious graduate student and the evidence for chemical specificity
5
Behavioral and histological basis of the chemoaffinity theory
6
Recollections from a remote past
8
Results with cortical spreading depression CSD including a digression on methodological critiques
223
Hemispheric independence in the intact human
225
Conclusion
227
References
228
Regulation and generation of perception in the asymmetric brain
231
Some historical considerations
232
An inconsistency?
234
Activation and specialization of the hemispheres in normal people
240

Chemoaffinity and the nervegrowth factor at a crossroad
9
The invitro neurotropic effects of NGF
10
Local control of neurite growth by NGF
12
The same or two different properties of nerve fibers?
14
The road ahead
15
References
16
The chemoaffinity hypothesis An appreciation of Roger W Sperrys contributions to developmental biology
19
Antecedents
24
The development of the chemoaffinity hypothesis
39
Chemoaffinity and developmental biology
62
Postscript
68
References
70
Retinotectal connections made through ecotopic nerves
75
Eye rudiments grafted to hindbrain or spinal regions of amphibian embryos
76
Eye rudiments grafted to genetically eyeless embryos
77
Optic nerve experimentally deflected to abnormal entry sites
78
Hypertrophy in regenerating optic cells that fail to make endings
79
Conclusions
82
Acknowledgments
83
Neural reconnection between the eye and the brain in goldfish
86
Sperrys theory of neuronal specificity
87
Systemsmatching hypothesis versus topographic regulation hypothesis
88
Tectal reimplantation after rotation or inversion
89
Reciprocal transplantation between the tectum and the forebrain
92
Retention of topographic addresses and topographic polarity by reciprocally translocated and rotated tectal reimplants
93
Regulative modification of topographic addresses in accord with the original topographic polarity
96
Acknowledgments
99
The case for chemoaffinity in the retinotectal system Recent studies
101
Macrotopography in the visual projection
103
Stability of tectal markers
110
Polarity in tectal markers
111
Chemoaffinity models allowing for plasticity
115
Future of chemoaffinity
120
References
121
Splitbrain studies of perception motor coordination and learning in cats and monkeys and comparisons to humans
125
The role of the corpus callosum in the representation of the visual field in cortical areas
129
Experiments with splitchiasm cats and the representation of the periphery by callosal connections
131
Callosal connections and visual maps in the superior colliculus
133
The corpus callosum and binocular interaction
134
Is the callosal pathway involved in inhibitory interactions between cells in the two hemispheres?
135
Plasticity in the development of the callosal system
136
References
137
Studies of visual perception and orienting in cats with fore and midbrain commissure section
140
Recent studies of changes in orienting and attending behavior resulting from commissurotomy
142
General discussion
152
Differing effects of midline section
153
Conclusions
154
Acknowledgments
155
Brain pathways in the visual guidance of movement and the behavioral functions of the cerebellum
157
Preferential and forced eyehand coordination in splitbrain monkeys
158
Finger use in splitbrain monkeys
160
Visualmotor connections and conditioning
161
The cerebellum and bimanual control
163
Conclusions
165
Intermanual transfer interhemispheric interaction and handedness in man and monkeys
168
Coordination of the two hands in splitbrain patients
169
Intermanual transfer in monkeys and handedness
174
Conclusions as to the role of the corpus callosum in motor coordination of the hands
178
Acknowledgments
179
Hemispheric specialization in monkeys
181
Evidence for hemispheric specialization in animals
182
Our experiments with monkeys
184
The overall picture
192
References
193
A corticolimbic memory path revealed through its disconnection
196
Memory failure after crossed corticolimbic lesions without commissurotomy
197
Opening up a crossed corticolimbic pathway by sparing area TEa
201
Memory failure after crossed corticolimbic lesions but only if combined with anterior commissurotomy
204
Comment
208
Acknowledgments
209
Cerebral hemispheres and human consciousness
211
Partial hemispheric independence with the neocommissures intact
215
Some extracallosal unifying mechanisms
217
Some examples of nonverbal crosscueing and of its failure in the human with complete cerebral commissurotomy
218
Other sources of mental duality
220
A quantitative anatomy argument for significant hemispheric independence with neocommissures intact
221
Conclusion
245
Acknowledgments
246
The neurobiological basis of hemisphericity
249
Concepts and confusions concerning hemispheric functions
250
Neurobiological bases of cognitive function and individual differences
251
The cognitive laterally battery
252
Hemispheric asymmetry and psychopathology
254
Hormone concentrations and cognitive function
256
Diurnal or sleepwake variation in hemispheric functional balance
258
Cognitive asymmetries and specific disabilities or special talents
259
Epilogue
262
References
263
Longterm semantic memory in the two cerebral hemispheres
266
Longterm semantic memory in commissurotomy patients
269
Performance of patients with unilateral lesions
273
Normal subjects
277
Concluding remarks
279
Hughlings Jackson on the recognition of places persons and objects
281
Jackson on recognition of places
282
Case studies since Jackson of loss of temporal memory associated with spatial disorientation for place
283
Comparative incidence of right and lefthemisphere lesions in loss of topographical memory
284
Laterality of hemisphere lesion and prosopagnosia
285
Visual agnosia and the recognition of objects
286
Lissauer on mind blindness and two contrasting cases of visual agnosia
287
Visual object agnosia and unilateral lesions
288
Conclusions
289
References
291
Lessons from cerebral commissurotomy Auditory attention haptic memory and visual images in verbal associativelearning
293
Right hemisphere superiority memory loss
294
Imagemediated verbal learning after cerebral commissurotomy
297
Acknowledgments
302
The saga of righthemisphere reading
304
The classical tradition
305
The dramatic conflict
306
A change of scene At UCLA
311
A second look at right hemisphere reading in aphasics
314
A happy ending?
316
Epilogue
317
The role of the right cerebral hemisphere in evaluating configurations
320
Nonverbal communication in patients with righthemisphere lesions
321
Emotional behavior emotional state and selfevaluation
324
Thought and language
325
Conclusions
330
Acknowledgments
331
Growth and education of the hemispheres
334
A new approach
335
Cortical growth in utero
336
Three steps by which cells become connected in the central nervous system
337
The neurobiology and genetic significance of motives
339
Intrinsic regulation of brain growth and the social transmission of knowledge
340
Cultural intelligence in infants and toddlers
341
Lateral asymmetries in early expressive communication and in perception of expressions
343
Genetic disorders of brain growth that block development of symbolic intelligence
347
Inner expression is made coherent by asymmetric cerebral motives for communication from the start
349
New evidence
351
Evidence from psychological developments to adolescence
353
Conclusions
356
References
357
Hemispheric specialization in the aged brain
364
Perceptual asymmetries in the elderly
365
Age and lateral asymmetry of memory abilities
367
Selective spatial disability in the elderly An artifact?
368
Conclusion
369
References
370
Forebrain commissurotomy and conscious awareness
371
Splitbrain man
373
Functional asymmetry
375
Minorhemisphere consciousness
377
Incompleteness of psychological division
379
Formula for psychophysical interaction
383
Acknowledgments
386
Publications of Roger W Sperry
389
Students and collaborators of Roger W Sperry
396
Index
398
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