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The comparative approach to intelligence
Introduction Assessment of intelligence in animals Classification
9 other sections not shown
acquisition amphibians animals appear argued association attention avoidance behaviour birds Bitterman body brain capacity cent classical classical conditioning clear comparable complex concerned conclusion conditioning consider contrast cortex course differences discrimination discussed effects evidence example expected experiments fact fish forebrain function further given goldfish groups habituation humans important improvement increase indicate intelligence interest interpretation involved language lateral learning least lesions less Mackintosh major mammalian mammals mechanisms memory monkeys nature non-humans nucleus object observed obtained occur olfactory organization performance pigeons position possible present problems procedure processes projections proposal Psychol question rats reason recent reflect region reinforcement relative relevant reports reptiles response reversal reward seen sensory serial reversal shock shown similar simply species stimuli structures studies subjects suggest suppose tasks teleosts tested tion transfer trials types vertebrates visual