Breadwinners and citizens: gender in the making of the French social model
Laura Levine Fraderrs"s synthesis of labor history and gender history brings to the fore failures in realizing the French social model of equality for all citizens. Challenging previous scholarship, she argues that the male breadwinner ideal was stronger in France in the interwar years than scholars have typically recognized, and that it had negative consequences for womenrs"s claims to the full benefits of citizenship. She describes how ideas about masculinity, femininity, family, and work affected postWorld War I reconstruction, policies designed to address Francers"s postwar population deficit, and efforts to redefine citizenship in the 1920s and 1930s. She demonstrates that gender divisions and the male breadwinner ideal were reaffirmed through the policies and practices of labor, management, and government. The social model that France implemented in the 1920s and 1930s incorporated fundamental social inequalities.Fraderrs"s analysis moves between the everyday lives of ordinary working women and men and the actions of national policymakers, political parties, and political movements, including feminists, pro-natalists, and trade unionists. In the years following World War I, the many women and an increasing number of immigrant men in the labor force competed for employment and pay. Family policy was used not only to encourage reproduction but also to regulate wages and the size of the workforce. Policies to promote married womenrs"s and immigrantsrs" departure from the labor force were more common when jobs were scarce, as they were during the Depression. Frader contends that gender and ethnicity exerted a powerful and unacknowledged influence on French social policy during the Depression era and for decades afterward.
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1ntroduct1on Gender in the Making of the French Social Model
one Reconstruction and Regeneration after World War I
two Gender Division the Family and the CitizenWorker
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Amar Anonymous apprenticeship aptitudes argued Association des surintendantes benefits body bonuses cgtu Citroen colonial workers Congrès national constituted debate Depression division of labor economic citizenship eight-hour day employed employers factory superintendents family allowances fathers Fédération feminine Feminism feminist femmes foreign workers francaise France French social French welfare French women French workers gender difference gender division générale hired Ibid immigrant workers increase industrial physiology inequalities interwar Kabyles labor force Lahy legislation Lille machines male breadwinner ideal manufacture married masculine maternity men's ment métallurgiques metalworking métaux motherhood mothers Moutet nationale nomic Nord Omnes organized labor Paris Paris region Pedersen percent physical political population postwar production pronatalist race racial Rapport Renault reproduction role scientific management sexual skilled social model social policies social rights syndicats textile Thébaud tion travail unemployed unemployment Union unskilled unwaged mother's vocational guidance women workers women's labor women's right working-class