Bringing Scanning Probe Microscopy up to Speed

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Springer Science & Business Media, Feb 28, 1999 - Technology & Engineering - 159 pages
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Bringing Scanning Probe Microscopy Up to Speed introduces the principles of scanning probe systems with particular emphasis on techniques for increasing speed. The authors include useful information on the characteristics and limitations of current state-of-the-art machines as well as the properties of the systems that will follow in the future. The basic approach is two-fold. First, fast scanning systems for single probes are treated and, second, systems with multiple probes operating in parallel are presented.
The key components of the SPM are the mechanical microcantilever with integrated tip and the systems used to measure its deflection. In essence, the entire apparatus is devoted to moving the tip over a surface with a well-controlled force. The mechanical response of the actuator that governs the force is of the utmost importance since it determines the scanning speed. The mechanical response relates directly to the size of the actuator; smaller is faster. Traditional scanning probe microscopes rely on piezoelectric tubes of centimeter size to move the probe. In future scanning probe systems, the large actuators will be replaced with cantilevers where the actuators are integrated on the beam. These will be combined in arrays of multiple cantilevers with MEMS as the key technology for the fabrication process.
 

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Contents

Improving Conventional Scanning Probe Microscopes
15
12 The Piezoresistive Cantilever
17
13 Imaging with Parallel Cantilevers
20
Design of Piezoresistive Cantilevers with Integrated Actuators
23
22 The ZnO Piezoresistive Cantilever
25
23 Theory of Operation
28
24 Centroid and Moment of Inertia
30
25 Spring Constant
34
36 Dynamic Imaging Modes
76
Cantilevers with Interdigital Deflection Sensors
81
42 Theory of Operation
82
43 Optical Simulations
88
44 Minimum Detectable Deflection
94
Operation of the Interdigital Cantilever
99
52 Imaging
102
53 Biasing
104

26 Maximum Induced Deflection
39
27 Minimum Detectable Deflection
42
28 ActuatorSensor Coupling
45
29 Comparison to other Analyses
46
210 Summary
47
Increasing the Speed of Imaging
49
32 Parallel Cantilevers Operating Under Individual Feedback Control
51
33 High Speed Imaging using the Piezoresistive Sensor
57
34 Imaging using the ZnO as the Sensor
63
35 High Speed Imaging with the Optical Lever Sensor
68
54 Resolution and Frequency Response
107
55 Interdigital Cantilever Arrays
110
56 Summary
117
CHAPTER 6 Cantilever Arrays
119
62 Centimeter scale AFM
127
Scanning Probes for Information Storage and Retrieval
131
72 Submicron recording with thinfilm magnetic scanning probes
133
Silicon Process Flow ZnO actuator and piezoresistive sensor
141
Silicon Process Flow Interdigital Cantilever
159
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Page ii - Series Editor Stephen D. Senturia Massachusetts Institute of Technology Editorial Board Roger T. Howe, University of California, Berkeley D. Jed Harrison, University of Alberta Hiroyuki Fujita, University of Tokyo Jan-Ake Schweitz, Uppsala University OTHER BOOKS IN THE SERIES: Methodology for the Modelling and Simulation of Microsystems Bartlomiej F.
Page xiii - Defense (itself divided into the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Office of Naval Research, the...

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