British Factory, Japanese Factory: The Origins of National Diversity in Industrial Relations
The Japanese way of work is notoriously 'different.' But is it Japan or Britain which is the odd man out? This is the first book to explore the real differences, not by contrasting Japanese employment relations with a hazy ideal image of 'the West,” but through a point-by-point comparison of two Japanese factories with two British ones making similar products.
In the first half of the book this comparison is pursued in systematic detail and with vivid illustrations of the attitudes and assumptions which underlie what the author calls the 'market-oriented” system of Britain and the 'organization-oriented' system of Japan. But these descriptions are only the beginning of a broader analysis. One chapter shows how the employment institutions of the two countries fit into their political, family and educational institutions-an exercise in functionalist sociology without the functionalist's usual claim to be so different-dominates the later chapters and these make a major contribution to the discussion of development and of the 'convergence' of different systems.
Are the Japanese being weaned from their 'pre-modern' practices and becoming more like us? On the contrary, Professor Dore finds more signs of our moving in a Japanese direction. The convergence theorists are wrong in taking the market-oriented employment systems created by the peculiarities of nineteenth-century capitalism as necessarily a permanent part of 'modern' industrial relations.
This brings the author to the 'late-development' effect. From a wealth of historical evidence, he argues that Japan's organization-oriented system is not simply a manifestation of Japan's unique culture, nor a hang-over from pre-industrial relations. Late-developers can 'get ahead,' adopting patterns of organization which in older industrial countries are still struggling to break through the crust of nineteenth-century institutions. He supports his thesis with evidence from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. If accepted, its importance for policy in these regions is obvious.
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Who They Are
Membership and Organization
Authority Function and Status
The Japanese Employment System
Britain Catching Up?
The Origins of the Japanese Employment System
Afterword to the 1990 Edition
The Interview Survey
Two Employment Systems
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agreement apprentices ascribed characteristic average bargaining bonus Bradford Britain British British civil service Chapter committee concern contrast corporatism corporatist course cultural differentials employees employment system engineering English Electric factories enterprise training enterprise union example fact Federation firm firm's foreman formal function Furusato factory grade Hitachi union Hitachi workers holidays Incomes Policy increase individual industrial relations institutions Japan Japanese system kind labour market Labour Party less loyalty managerial managers manual workers matters ment negotiations one's organization organization-oriented overtime Party pattern payment personnel piecework Plant Union position principle production promotion proportion recruitment responsibility salary sample scale schemes section chief seniority shop stewards skilled social society Sohyo spring offensive staff status stewards structure Taga tion trade union traditional trends union leaders union officials university graduates wage system welfare workshop Yokosuka
Unhealthy Societies: The Afflictions of Inequality
Richard G. Wilkinson
No preview available - 1996
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