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acre admixture alder aspen attain average Bavarian Alps beech better birch bole branches Britain chestnut classes of soil clearance close canopy conifers considerable coppice crown danger deciduous demands favourable feet foliage forest trees formation fresh frost Germany germinative girth greater growing-space grown growth in height growth of grass high forest hornbeam humus indigenous larch larvae latter less light and air light-loving lime loamy localities mixed forests moisture mountain natural reproduction parent standards patches period of rotation planting pole-forest poplars production protection pure forests remunerative reproductive power root-system roots ruling species sandy soils Scotland Scots pine seed seedlings self-sown sessile oak shade shade-bearing shoots silver fir soil and situation soil-moisture sowing species of forest spruce stage of growth stems stool subordinate species sycamore sylvicultural takes place tap-root thinnings thrive timber tracts transplants underplanting uplands usually weeds Weymouth whilst willows woodlands woods yield
Page x - One chief hindrance to our woodlands being remunerative may be stated at once, — we are arboriculturists and sportsmen, not foresters. A large proportion of the land, returned as woodland, is really pleasure-ground and game-cover. Thousands of landowners follow, on a smaller scale, the example set by the State on a larger in the New Forest and Windsor Forest.
Page vii - Truly, the waste and destruction of our woods has been so universal, that I conceive nothing less than an universal plantation of all sorts of trees will supply, and will encounter the defect ; and therefore I shall here adventure to speak something in general of them all ; though I chiefly insist upon the propagation of such only as seem to be the most wanting and serviceable to the end proposed.
Page 155 - After timber trees,' this author observes, 'the beech deserves our notice. Some, indeed, rank the beech among timber trees; but, I believe, in general it does not find that respect, as its wood is of a soft, spongy nature, sappy and alluring to the worm.
Page 21 - ... compose the same kind of scenery. The description, therefore, of such scenes will come most properly under the head of forest views, on which we shall hereafter dwell at large. At present let us examine the smaller combinations ; and first the copse. The Copse is a species of scenery composed commonly of forest trees, intermixed with brushwood, which latter is periodically cut down in twelve, thirteen, or fourteen years.
Page vii - Truly the waste and destruction of our woods has been so universal that I conceive nothing less than a universal plantation of the sorts of trees as will supply and well encounter the defect and therefore, I shall here adventure to speak something in general of them all, though I chiefly insist upon the propagation of such only as seem to be most wanting and serviceable to the end proposed".
Page 139 - ... frost is not imminent; windy situations, coombs and valleys, or southern exposures should all be avoided, so long as level or gently-sloping sites with mild, fertile, fresh soil are available. 4. LARCH (Pinus Larix, L. = LARIX EUROP^EA, DC) Distribution.—The larch is indigenous to the Alps and the Carpathians, the lower portion of the Silesian and Moravian mountain ranges, and the southern edge of the woodland area of Bohemia and Moravia; outside of these limits its growth is due to artificial...
Page 186 - Distribution. —The English oak is found over the greatest portion of Europe, Asia Minor, and the Caucasus, its northern limit being about 58° in Scotland, 60—63° in Scandinavia, 57^° in Russia, thence eastwards to the Ural; its southern limit through Spain, Sicily, and Greece is not fixed.
Page 6 - VIII.'s time, when a statute (c. 35) enjoined replantations of Forest Trees to cure the spoils and devastations that have been made in the woods.
Page 272 - Distribution.—The hornbeam is described as being indigenous from the south-west of France eastwards across central and eastern Europe to Persia, northwards to England and Ireland (but not Scotland) and the southern portion of Sweden, and southwards to lower Italy and Greece.
Page 156 - Prussian sea-coast, thence across eastern Poland, Bessarabia, and the Crimea, towards the Caucasus. It is essentially a tree belonging to the hilly and the lower mountainous tracts of central and south Germany, and northwestern Austria, but it also forms pure forests on the plains within the Baltic region, in upper Silesia, and in that portion of Alsace drained by the Rhine.