Broken Treaties: United States and Canadian Relations with the Lakotas and the Plains Cree, 1868-1885
Broken Treaties is a comparative assessment of Indian treaty negotiation and implementation focusing on the first decade following the United States?Lakota Treaty of 1868 and Treaty Six between Canada and the Plains Cree (1876). Jill St. Germain argues that the ?broken treaties? label imposed by nineteenth-century observers and perpetuated in the historical literature has obscured the implementation experience of both Native and non-Native participants and distorted our understanding of the relationships between them. As a result, historians have ignored the role of the Treaty of 1868 as the instrument through which the United States and the Lakotas mediated the cultural divide separating them in the period between 1868 and 1875. In discounting the treaty historians have also failed to appreciate the broader context of U.S. politics, which undermined a treaty solution to the Black Hills crisis in 1876. In Canada, on the other hand, the ?broken treaties? tradition has obscured the distinctly different understanding of Treaty Six held by Canada and the Plains Cree. The inability of either party to appreciate the other?s position fostered the damaging misunderstanding that culminated in the Northwest Rebellion of 1885. In the first critical assessment of the implementation of these treaties, Broken Treaties restores Indian treaties to a central position in the investigation of Native?non-Native relations in the United States and Canada.
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1 Separate Pasts
2 Expectations and Promises
3 Early Efforts in the United States 18681871
4 Early Efforts in Canada 18761878
the treaty of 1868 18711875
Treaty Six 18791884
7 The Treaty of 1868 and the Peace Policy 18751876
8 Treaty Six and the Northwest Rebellion 1885
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2d sess agricultural assistance Ahtahkakoop Alexander Morris Allison Commission annuities appropriations arcia Article August bands Battleford beneﬁt Black Hills Black Hills War broken treaties Brule buffalo Canada Canadian ofﬁcials Carlton Cheyenne River chiefs civilization Commissioner of Indian commitment conﬂict Congress Congressional Globe difﬁcult E. P. Smith Edgar Dewdney Edmonton farm instructor ﬁle ﬁnal ﬁrst ﬁve Fort Carlton Fort Laramie Fort Pitt Frog Lake fulﬁll government’s hunting rights included Indian affairs Indian Agent Indian commissioner Indian Peace Commission inﬂuence interpretation issue Laramie Macdonald Papers Manypenny Commission ment Métis military Missouri River Mistahimaskwa Mistawasis negotiations North Platte nwmp ofﬁcers Oglalas Ottawa Peace Policy Pitt Plains Cree Poundmaker problem promised rationing Reed reﬂected Report Sanborn secure Senate September signiﬁcant Sioux Reservation speciﬁc Spotted Tail territory tion treaty implementation treaty obligations Treaty of 1868 treaty relations treaty relationship Treaty Six treaty terms tribes U.S. Indian U.S.-Lakota relations United Vankoughnet