Bronze age anthropomorphic figurines from Umm el-Marra, Syria: chronology, visual analysis, and function
The subject of this volume is the corpus of 203 Bronze Age anthropomorphic clay figurines and figurine fragments recovered from various archaeological contexts at Umm el-Marra, Syria, between 1994 and 2002. As a class of objects, anthropomorphic clay figurines are an important subject of study because they are very common in the archaeological record and yet they are poorly understood. Figurines appear to have been an integral part of daily life for the people of the ancient Near East as early as the Neolithic period and continued to be crafted and used for millennia. Despite this ubiquity, many crucial questions about the figurines have yet to be answered: Who or what is being represented? Why does their appearance change over time, and what is the relationship between their style and chronology? What were these figurines used for, and what can these enigmatic objects tell us about the lives and beliefs of ancient people?
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Acropolis Center Archon Acropolis North Archon Acropolis West Archon Alalakh and/or animal bones anthropomorphic figurine fragments Applied clay disks archaeological context Area Archon arms artifacts ashy Associated artifacts/ecofacts attributed Badre baked clay basalt bovid breakage Bronze Age Catalogue clay is pinched cm Context cobbles and sherds comparanda cupping the breasts Czichon and Werner depicted diagnostic pottery sherd domicile EB Description EB figurine fragments EB figurines EB IVB Ebla equid example Excavation area Fabric figure wears figurine base figurine fragments cat figurines recovered fragment is broken hairstyle Hama Hammam iconography incised lines indicating the nose layer of cobbles LB debris Loon Marchetti medium medium-fine texture millennium modeled motif mouth neck ornaments nude female Object number pinched vertically pubic triangle sand temper Dimensions Selenkahiye sheep/goat Square stalk-shaped figurine stone style sub-floor pits Syria torso fragment Type Ugarit Umm el-Marra corpus Umm el-Marra figurines waist well-fired clay Yamhad