Bulletin - United States Geological Survey, Issue 659

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Page 8 - It is essentially a rock derived by solidification and partial distillation or oxidation of water-laid deposits consisting of, or containing, large quantities of plant spores and pollen grains and more or less comminuted remains of low orders of water plants and animals.
Page 116 - F., different oils being yielded at different temperatures, those distilling later at the higher temperatures being regarded as best. Likewise, the higher temperatures appear to yield by-products more tarlike and differing in other respects. The brown canneloid is said to yield a lighter-colored oil. The distillates are said to be used in the rubber industry, in soap making, in paints, and in various proprietary preparations. The residual cinder can hardly be called coke, although often on withdrawing...
Page 115 - ... generally uniform even texture and structure. Occasionally fragments of lignite with clearly marked woody structure may be seen. It has an uneven conchoidal fracture. It is soft but not friable, that is, it may be easily mined with the pick and may be cut with a knife as readily as compact dry clay, but will not crumble between the fingers. When cut or scratched with a knife it shows a shiny or oily streak. Upon being exposed to dry air the coal contracts and cracks both along the bedding and...
Page 116 - ... scratched with a knife it shows a shiny or oily streak. Upon "being exposed to dry air, the coal contracts and cracks both along the bedding and at right angles to It so that fragments may be broken by the hand, but the mass does not fall to pieces. The coal is then blacker and harder than when fresh and the streak or powder is more nearly black. On being exposed for a short time to the repeated action of rain, dew, and snow, however, it will disintegrate into small particles. From this description...
Page 115 - ... bituminous and cannel coal 22 feet thick was formerly worked at Napton, Saline County. ARKANSAS. Extending northwestward from Camden, Ouachita County, Ark., is a small area of typical brown subcannel, which has been tested for oil and gas production with very favorable results (pp. 38, 47). The coal bed has been traced from about 2 miles northwest of Camden for 13 miles to the northwest and has been opened and mined in a small way at a number of places. Among these openings, in which the coal...
Page 11 - ... that material which, when burned, breaks down and yields an ash that goes through the grate bars and shows no tendency to maintain its original shape, is a coal, and that material which on burning yields an ash that tends to maintain its original shape, is a shale. The exact percentage of ash that should distinguish a coal from a shale can not yet be given, but until more exact figures are available, it is suggested that material that yields less than 33 per cent of ash be considered a coal".
Page 84 - Geol. Surv., vol. C on Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, pp. 195-209, and a separate, 1884.
Page 43 - ... in Portland, one in New Bedford, four in Boston, one in Hartford, five in the environs of New York, eight or ten in Western Pennsylvania, twenty-five in Ohio, eight in Virginia, six in Kentucky, and one in St. Louis. Many, if not most, of these were of small capacity, however, and the greater part of them were not more than fairly started when the discovery of petroleum prostrated the whole business and threatened its projectors with overwhelming loss, from which they were happily rescued by...
Page 92 - This coal has a bright slick, satiny appearance, and on being burned goes entirely in to a fine red ash. This is the richest and purest cannel coal that the writer has found in Kentucky, and is probably unsurpassed anywhere. Sad to relate, a close and careful investigation of the pocket and adjoining hills reveals the existence of only three acres of this remarkable coal; another commentary to which the searcher for this elusive mineral is subject.
Page 17 - White. David. Some relations In origin between coal and petroleum: Washington Acad. Sci. Jour., vol. 5, pp. 189-212, 1915.

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