Bureaucrats and Bourgeois Society: Office Politics and Individual Credit in France 1789-1848
How did the French Revolution change ordinary lives? "Bureaucrats and Bourgeois Society" asks this question in relation to office clerks working in Parisian administrations. Under new masters, these clerks faced radical changes to work practices as reforming politicians looked to implement new 'administrative science'. Many also faced the loss of family inheritances, as positions no longer passed down from father to son. Clerks were now expected to make their career as individuals. In practice, this meant increased job insecurity. Administrators lived under the threat of regular cuts in pay and of personnel. In this situation, some believed that the way to get ahead was by playing office politics. In the early nineteenth century, however, clerks mitigated their situation by modifying occupational practices. Inside the offices, they settled new modes of judging individual merit. Outside, they accumulated other forms of individual credit, in the process helping to define nineteenth-century bourgeois social capital, ideals of emulation, honor, and masculinity. Job insecurity, however, continued to set 'bureaucrats' apart from the bourgeoisie and their social identity came under question during the July Monarchy and 1848 Revolution.
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administratif administrators affaires étrangères Agriculture ancienneté Archives August Balzac Barbié du Bocage BNF CP SG bourgeoisie Broin Bulletin bureau chief bureaucrats Champagneux Cochaud Code colleagues commis Commission conseil copy clerks Costaz CP SG Colis cultural Daumard Degérando Delétang denunciation Département des affaires départements division chief dossier Ecole d’administration Edmond Blanc employés emulation état des services father fonctionnaires Foreign Affairs française France François François de Neufchâteau French Revolution Gambier de Campy Gellée générale Guillaume Henry Monnier Honoré de Balzac hôtel Ibid Jean Joly Joly’s Journal July Monarchy Lansel Legion of Honour Letellier letter Louis Maison Mémoires Minister ministère de l’intérieur Ministry of Foreign Ministry of Interior ministry’s Moeurs Napoleon nationale nineteenth-century o’clock office politics Old-Regime paperwork Paris petits petits bourgeois Poyet premier promotion Rapport rédacteur reform Revolutionary Roland salary secretary siècle social capital Société de géographie society’s Théâtre tion Vendémiaire Ventôse VIII vols Paris Ymbert