CMOS Cantilever Sensor Systems: Atomic-Force Microscopy and Gas Sensing Applications

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Springer Science & Business Media, Jul 23, 2002 - Science - 142 pages
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This book is intended for scientists and engineers in the field of micro- and nano electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS) and introduces the development of cantilever-based sensor systems using CMOS-compatible micromachining from the design concepts and simulations to the prototype. It is also a useful resource for researchers on cantilever sensors and resonant sensors in general The reader will become familiar with the potential of the combination of two technological approaches: IC fabrication technology, notably CMOS technology, and silicon micromachining and the resulting microstructures such as cantilever beams. It was recognized early that these two technologies should be merged in order to make the microstructures smart and devise integrated microsystems with on-chip driving and signal conditioning circuitry - now known as CMOS MEMS or, with the arrival of nanostructures, CMOS NEMS. One way to achieve the merger is the post-processing micro- or nano- machining of finished CMOS wafers, some of which is described in this book. The book introduces this approach based on work carried out at the Physical Electronics Laboratory of ETH Zurich on arrays of cantilever transducers with on-chip driving and signal conditioning circuitry. These cantilevers are familiar from Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM) and allow the sensitive detection of phys ical quantities such as forces and mass changes. The book is divided into three parts. First, general aspects of cantilever resona tors are introduced, e. g. their resonant behavior and possible driving and sensing mechanisms.
 

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Contents

1 Introduction
1
11 CMOSIntegrated Sensor Systems
2
12 Scope of This Book
4
2 Design Considerations
7
212 Quality Factor
11
22 Electrothermal Excitation
12
221 Vertical Temperature Distribution
15
222 Horizontal Temperature Distribution
17
43 Modeling MassSensitive Behavior
63
44 Measurement Setup
64
45 Spray Coating of Polymers
65
46 Sensitivity and Resolution
70
47 Temperature Dependence
75
472 Sensitivity
77
48 Sensor Arrays for Discrimination of Mixtures
79
5 Force Sensors for Parallel Scanning Atomic Force Microscopy
85

223 Modal Analysis
18
23 Electromagnetic Excitation
21
24 Piezoresistive Detection
22
241 StressSensitive MOSTransistors
24
25 CMOSCompatible Micromachining
25
251 Anisotropic Etching
26
252 Reactive Ion Etching
28
253 Wet Etching of Silicon Dioxide
29
3 Cantilever Beam Resonators
31
32 Fabrication
33
33 Resonant Behavior
34
331 Piezoresistive Detection
36
332 Spectral Response and Cross Talk
37
333 Quality Factor
41
34 Feedback Operation
42
35 SingleChip Resonant Sensor System
45
361 Fabrication Using a CantileverShaped nWell
48
37 Temperature Influences
50
38 Pressure Dependence
52
4 Resonant Gas Sensor
57
42 Polymers As Sensitive Layers
59
423 Selectivity Using Functionalyzed Polymers
60
511 Instrumentation and Detection Principles
87
512 Modes of Operation
88
513 Cantilevers for AFM
91
52 TwoCantilever Array
93
522 Fabrication
96
523 Characterization
99
53 Compact Scanning System
102
54 10Cantilever Array
104
541 FiniteElement Simulations
105
542 System Design
109
543 Fabrication
111
544 Characterization
114
545 Nanochemical Surface Analyzer
118
6 Conclusions and Outlook
121
62 Outlook
122
Appendices
125
A2 Process Sequence Resonant Gas Sensor Maskless
127
A3 Process Sequence AFM Sensor Arrays
128
A4 Material Properties of Thin Film Materials
129
References
131
Subject Index
141
Copyright

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