Caddo Verb Morphology

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U of Nebraska Press, 2004 - Foreign Language Study - 224 pages
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At the time of European contact with Native communities, the Caddos (who call themselves the Hasinai) were accomplished traders living in the southern plains. Their communities occupied parts of present-day Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Oklahoma. It was early Spanish explorers who named a part of this territory ?Texas,? borrowing the Caddo word for ?friend.? Today there are approximately thirty-five hundred Caddos, most of whom live in Oklahoma. Their original language, which is related to the Plains languages?Pawnee, Arikara, Kitsai, and Wichita?is rapidly dying and is spoken only by a diminishing number of Caddo elders.

Drawing on interviews with Caddo speakers, tapes made by earlier researchers, and written accounts, Lynette R. Melnar provides the first full-length overview and analysis of Caddo grammar. Because Caddo is an extremely complex language, Melnar?s clear description will be important to linguists in general as well as to those specializing in Native languages. Caddo Verb Morphology is an essential contribution to our understanding of the Caddos? traditional world in particular and of Native America in general.

 

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Contents

The Caddo verb Orientation and overview
1
11 Background
2
112 The state of research
6
12 The Caddo verb
8
122 Template morphology
10
123 Common features of template morphology
14
1232 Discontinuous dependency
16
1233 Spanned ordering
17
343 Deictic position
96
344 Indiscriminative
98
35 TAM positionclass survey
99
Number and distribution
101
41 Number
102
411 Dual
105
412 Animate plural general plural
109
413 Absolutive number
113

13 Outline of chapters
20
Person case and reality
22
21 Pronominal morphology
23
22 Person
25
221 First and second person
26
222 Third person
28
223 Defocusing person
31
2231 Referencing peripheral third person
32
2232 Referencing indefinite third persons
34
2233 Referencing and addressing inlaws
36
23 Case
37
231 AGENT case
38
232 PATIENT case
42
233 DATIVE case
45
24 Reality
49
25 Conclusion
55
Tense aspect and mood
57
31 Tense
62
312 Future
65
32 Aspect
66
321 Perfect
68
322 Imperfective
69
3221 Imperfective
70
3222 Inchoative
72
3223 Intentive
73
3224 Andative
74
3226 Iterative
76
3227 Durative
77
3228 Continuative
78
3229 Prioritive
80
32210 Resultative
81
33 Mood
82
331 Indicative
84
332 Interrogative
85
333 Imperative
87
334 Conditional
88
335 Contrastive
89
338 Mirative
90
3310 Possibility
91
3313 Quotative
92
342 Subordinator
94
42 Distribution
116
421 Position 10 distributive
117
422 Position 5 distributive
118
43 Cooccurrence
120
431 Cooccurrence restrictions
122
432 Discrete cooccurrence
123
44 Conclusion
124
Voice and valency
127
51 Valencyincreasing constructions
129
512 Portative
133
513 Mild causative
138
514 Dative applicative
141
middle voice
144
53 Conclusion
149
Further verbstem modification
151
61 Postural
152
62 Manner
155
63 Locative
160
64 Patientive
170
65 Verbstem compounding
179
652 Secondary stem + copula
181
653 Secondary stem + active stem
186
66 Conclusion
189
Conclusion
191
Phonological sketch
193
A1 Phoneme inventory and orthographic conventions
194
A12 Vowels
195
AI3 Length and tone
196
A2 Phonological processes
197
A22 Glottalization processes
200
A23 Syncope
201
A24 Palatalization
202
A25 Consonant cluster simplification
203
A26 Syllablecoda simplification
204
A27 Length
206
A28 Tone
207
A3 Morphologically triggered epenthesis and high tone assignment
208
References
213
Index
219
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About the author (2004)

\Lynette R. Melnar has a PhD in linguistics and is a research scientist for Motorola Labs.