Calcium regulating hormones, vitamin D metabolites, and cyclic AMP assays and their clinical application
Calcium metabolism is regulated by three specific hormones: parathor- mone, calciferol metabolites, and calcitonin. Cyclic AMP also plays an important part in calcium regulation, and its concentration in urine can be taken as a measure of parathyroid function. Methods for quantitative measurement of, e.g. calcium-regulating hormones and vitamin D metabolites as well as of cAMP are absolutely necessary for safe differential diagnosis of diseases of the parathyroid like hypo- and hyperparathyroidism. In this monograph all presently available methods are summarized as to whether they can already be obtained as test kits or are still being tested. Radioimmunoassays for the various peptide fragments such as 53-84, 44-68, 28-48, and 1-34 are described, as are immunochemiluminescence methods and adenylate cyclase bioassays. The same is true for the vitamin D metabolites, where the various assays for calcidiol and calcitriol such as HPLC, protein-binding assay with second antibody separation, and double antibody RIA are deA scribed. Finally, determination of calcitonin and cAMP is discussed in detail. This is a practically and clinically oriented monograph for working in the fields of internal medicine, endocrinology, and laboratory medicine.
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Parathyroid HormoneRelated Protein
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25-hydroxyvitamin acetonitrile adenylate cyclase affinity amino acid antisera antiserum assay buffer binding protein bovine C-terminal calcitonin centrifuged CGRP chloramine-T chronic renal failure circulating Clin Chem Clin Endocrinol Metab clinical cross-reactivity detection limit determined diluted eluted ethanol extraction fraction fragments g/liter healthy Heidelberg HPLC hPTH human parathyroid hormone human serum hypercalcemia immunoassay immunoassay vials immunoradiometric assay immunoreactivity incubation intact PTH iodinated Iodogen kidney labeled liquid chromatography measured metabolism metabolites method midregion PTH monoclonal monoclonal antibodies normal range normal subjects obtained parathyroid glands parathyroid hormone patients with primary peptide plasma pmol/L pmol/liter primary hyperparathyroidism procedure PTH levels PTH-rP purification rabbit radioimmunoassay receptor renal failure rickets Schmidt-Gayk second antibody sensitive Sep-Pak C18 sera serum calcium serum samples shown in Fig solution specific standard curve synthetic Table thyroid tissue tracer tubes two-site values vitamin D deficiency vitamin D metabolites vitamin D3