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Bending springs in bar form
Discshaped springs subjected to bending stresses
Coiled springs stressed in bending
6 other sections not shown
accordance with Eq according to Eq active coils amplitude angle axis balance springs bending line bending stress buckle camber cantilever springs centre coeﬂicient Cold rolled compressive stress corresponding curvature curve deﬂection f deformation diagram diameter dimensions disc springs elastic end coils equation Example fatigue strength ﬁgures ﬁnd ﬁnished ﬁrst ﬁtted ﬁxed ﬂat formulae free end friction given gives helical springs ho/s increases inner rings kg/cm laminated spring load Q load-deﬂection line lower spring main plate material maximum stress mean stress means of Eq natural frequency outer ring ratio rectangular cross section rectangular section rectangular spring ring spring round section shown in Fig slit ring smaller speciﬁc deﬂection spring plates spring shown spring steel stack strip suﬂicient surface suspension springs Table tensile stress thickness h torque torsion bar torsion springs torsional stress trapezium trapezoidal triangular spring upper spring values valve spring vehicle vibrations volute springs width wire