Camera-Aided Robot Calibration
Robot calibration is the process of enhancing the accuracy of a robot by modifying its control software. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the theory and implementation of robot calibration using computer vision technology. It is the only book to cover the entire process of vision-based robot calibration, including kinematic modeling, camera calibration, pose measurement, error parameter identification, and compensation.
The book starts with an overview of available techniques for robot calibration, with an emphasis on vision-based techniques. It then describes various robot-camera systems. Since cameras are used as major measuring devices, camera calibration techniques are reviewed.
Camera-Aided Robot Calibration studies the properties of kinematic modeling techniques that are suitable for robot calibration. It summarizes the well-known Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) modeling convention and indicates the drawbacks of the D-H model for robot calibration. The book develops the Complete and Parametrically Continuous (CPC) model and the modified CPC model, that overcome the D-H model singularities. The error models based on these robot kinematic modeling conventions are presented.
No other book available addresses the important, practical issue of hand/eye calibration. This book summarizes current research developments and demonstrates the pros and cons of various approaches in this area. The book discusses in detail the final stage of robot calibration - accuracy compensation - using the identified kinematic error parameters. It offers accuracy compensation algorithms, including the intuitive task-point redefinition and inverse-Jacobian algorithms and more advanced algorithms based on optimal control theory, which are particularly attractive for highly redundant manipulators.
Camera-Aided Robot Calibration defines performance indices that are designed for off-line, optimal selection of measurement configurations. It then describes three approaches: closed-form, gradient-based, and statistical optimization. The included case study presents experimental results that were obtained by calibrating common industrial robots. Different stages of operation are detailed, illustrating the applicability of the suggested techniques for robot calibration. Appendices provide readers with preliminary materials for easier comprehension of the subject matter. Camera-Aided Robot Calibration is a must-have reference for researchers and practicing engineers-the only one with all the information!
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OVERVIEW OF ROBOT CALIBRATION
CAMERA CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES
KINEMATIC MODELING FOR ROBOT CALIBRATION
Modification to the DH model
POSE MEASUREMENT WITH CAMERAS
IE Finite Difference Approximation to Kinematic Error Models
The DH Error Model
A Nonlinear Iterative Solution
ROBOTIC BASE CALIBRATION
SIMULTANEOUS CALIBRATION OF ROBOTIC
ROBOT ACCURACY COMPENSATION
SELECTION OF ROBOT MEASUREMENT
Summary and References
Calibration of a PUMA Arm
VH The MCPC Error Model
Problem Formulation and a Solution Strategy
An All Recursive Linear Solution Approach for General
SIMULTANEOUS CALIBRATION OF A ROBOT
ROBOTIC HANDEYE CALIBRATION
accuracy compensation algorithm angle axes calibration points camera model camera parameters Cartesian errors chapter coefficient computed condition number coordinate frame cost function CPC model D-H model defined denote end-effector pose equations error vector estimation forward kinematic homogeneous transformation Identification Jacobian image center image coordinates intrinsic parameters inverse kinematic iterative Jacobian matrix joint axis joint variable kinematic identification kinematic model least squares lens distortion linear least squares linear solution link frame link parameters link transformation manipulator MCPC method modeling convention multiplicative differential transformation nominal nonlinear number of measurements obtained one-stage optimal orientation errors orientation parameters parameter errors parametrically continuous plane position and orientation position errors prismatic joint procedure PUMA quaternion revolute joint robot calibration robot configuration robot end-effector robot hand robot joint robot kinematic robot measurement configurations rotation matrix sensor simulated annealing simulation singular value decomposition solved stereo cameras techniques tool frame translation parameters world coordinate system zero Zhuang
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