Camera-Aided Robot Calibration

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CRC Press, Jun 27, 1996 - Technology & Engineering - 368 pages
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Robot calibration is the process of enhancing the accuracy of a robot by modifying its control software. This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the theory and implementation of robot calibration using computer vision technology. It is the only book to cover the entire process of vision-based robot calibration, including kinematic modeling, camera calibration, pose measurement, error parameter identification, and compensation.

The book starts with an overview of available techniques for robot calibration, with an emphasis on vision-based techniques. It then describes various robot-camera systems. Since cameras are used as major measuring devices, camera calibration techniques are reviewed.

Camera-Aided Robot Calibration studies the properties of kinematic modeling techniques that are suitable for robot calibration. It summarizes the well-known Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) modeling convention and indicates the drawbacks of the D-H model for robot calibration. The book develops the Complete and Parametrically Continuous (CPC) model and the modified CPC model, that overcome the D-H model singularities. The error models based on these robot kinematic modeling conventions are presented.

No other book available addresses the important, practical issue of hand/eye calibration. This book summarizes current research developments and demonstrates the pros and cons of various approaches in this area. The book discusses in detail the final stage of robot calibration - accuracy compensation - using the identified kinematic error parameters. It offers accuracy compensation algorithms, including the intuitive task-point redefinition and inverse-Jacobian algorithms and more advanced algorithms based on optimal control theory, which are particularly attractive for highly redundant manipulators.

Camera-Aided Robot Calibration defines performance indices that are designed for off-line, optimal selection of measurement configurations. It then describes three approaches: closed-form, gradient-based, and statistical optimization. The included case study presents experimental results that were obtained by calibrating common industrial robots. Different stages of operation are detailed, illustrating the applicability of the suggested techniques for robot calibration. Appendices provide readers with preliminary materials for easier comprehension of the subject matter. Camera-Aided Robot Calibration is a must-have reference for researchers and practicing engineers-the only one with all the information!
 

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Contents

OVERVIEW OF ROBOT CALIBRATION
1
CAMERA CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES
11
KINEMATIC MODELING FOR ROBOT CALIBRATION
63
Modification to the DH model
78
POSE MEASUREMENT WITH CAMERAS
107
ERRORMODELBASED KINEMATIC
133
IE Finite Difference Approximation to Kinematic Error Models
139
The DH Error Model
153
A Nonlinear Iterative Solution
229
ROBOTIC BASE CALIBRATION
245
SIMULTANEOUS CALIBRATION OF ROBOTIC
255
Simulation Studies
266
ROBOT ACCURACY COMPENSATION
273
SELECTION OF ROBOT MEASUREMENT
291
Summary and References
305
Calibration of a PUMA Arm
312

VH The MCPC Error Model
166
Problem Formulation and a Solution Strategy
172
An All Recursive Linear Solution Approach for General
181
SIMULTANEOUS CALIBRATION OF A ROBOT
201
Implementation Issues
210
ROBOTIC HANDEYE CALIBRATION
217
Calibration of a SCARA Arm
323
REFERENCES
331
APPENDICES
341
INDEX
347
Copyright

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Page 336 - A Kinematic CAD Tool for the Design and Control of a Robot Manipulator,
Page 336 - Least-squares estimation of transformation parameters between two point patterns,
Page 332 - Fu, KS, RC Gonzalez, and CSG Lee (1987). Robotics: Control, Sensing, Vision and Intelligence.

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