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access to clean achieving universal access acid air pollution air quality Asia/Pacific region average Bangkok benefits billion Business as Usual capital China clean water coal core strategy cost of pollution cubic meter damage discharges district heating economic growth effects emis emission standards ensure environment environmental policies environmental problems exposure four-stroke fuel health costs High Cost scenario High Cost strategy households impact implemented improvements incentives Indonesia infant mortality infrastructure investment Jakarta Japan Kuala Lumpur levels low-cost Manila measures Medium Cost scenario ment micrograms per cubic Myanmar nitrogen oxides operating output particulates percent of GDP Philippines plants pollution controls population result River rural sector sewer networks small sources Southeast Asia sulfur dioxide Taiwan Taiwan China technologies Thailand tion two-stroke motorcycles U.S. dollars urban air pollution urban areas urban income urban sanitation Usual scenario vehicles VOCs wastewater water and sanitation water pollution water quality water supplies World Bank
Page 1 - Smoke and small particles from burning coal cause more than 50,000 premature deaths and 400,000 new cases of chronic bronchitis a year in 11 large Chinese cities.
Page 1 - ... investing about 1 percent of GDP each year gradually rising to 2.5 percent over the next 25 years — divided roughly equally between air and water investment — would greatly reduce pollution in China by 2020 (94). The report also noted that the operating and the average investment costs each year of such a program would gradually rise to about 2.5 percent of GDP by the end of the period. According to the World Bank, the benefits of these measures exceed the costs by large margins, and these...
Page 3 - French cities, for example, increased from about 32 years in 1850 to about 45 years in 1900, with the timing of changes corresponding closely to improvements in water supply and wastewater disposal.
Page 42 - East Asia's Environment: Principles and Priorities for Action (Washington, DC: World Bank, Discussion Paper 287, 1995); and Asian Development Bank, Emerging Asia (Manila: ADB, 1997).
Page 6 - States—is that it is very expensive to undertake a rapid transition from neglecting environmental goals to giving them high priority.
Page 36 - Manila will be vehicle emission standards linked to efforts to encourage the use of alternative fuels such as compressed natural gas or LPG, especially in buses and light trucks.
Page 15 - Comparisons with other forms of environmental degradation show that air pollution causes the greatest damage to health and loss of welfare from environmental causes in these economies.