Cancers in the Urban Environment: Patterns of Malignant Disease in Los Angeles County and Its Neighborhoods

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Academic Press, 2004 - Medical - 645 pages
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This volume, the first of its kind ever, is designed to provide both laypersons and professionals with a detailed description of the occurrence of each common form of cancer in the ethnically, socially, and environmentally complex milieu of a modern urban complex. The place is Los Angeles County, and the patterns of 72 different malignancies are described according to race, age, sex, social class calendar time (since 1972) and most notably, individual neighborhood, using detailed maps of high risk.

The book permits residents to screen the malignancies and identify those of special concern locally, and to identify other communities with similar concerns. The pattern of each malignancy is briefly discussed with reference to background knowledge of causation and the degree to which the observed pattern was expected on that basis. Persons residing outside Los Angeles County will identify patterns likely to prevail in their own communities.

Physicians and scientific investigators in California and elsewhere can use the material provided to counsel patients and evaluate the consistency of any specific pattern of occurrence with each specific causal hypothesis. A detailed appendix describes the source of data, provides the basis for the choices made in the production of the volume, and gives a perspective on the search for "clusters" of malignancy.

* Compares different types of cancers with respect to the degree of non-random occurrence
* Contains numerous maps detailing the demographic and geographic pattern of cancer occurrence in Los Angeles County
* Provides an empirical perspective to the search for disease "clusters"
 

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Contents

What Cancers Are
5
Environmental and Other Causes of Cancer
7
Resources Used to Detect Local Increases in Risk
10
Methods Used to Detect Local Increases in Risk
11
Errors Due to Chance
14
Comparison Between Apples and Oranges
20
Failure to Detect Local Increases in Risk
22
Investigating a Lead
24
Endometrial Uterine Corpus Carcinoma
296
Epithelial Carcinoma of the Ovary
302
Germ Cell Malignancies
307
Prostate Carcinoma
314
Anogenital Adenocarcinoma
319
Anogenital Squamous Carcinoma
326
Mixed Cell Genital Tumors
333
Transitional Cell NonSquamous Bladder Carcinoma
338

Guide to the Figures
27
For Both Genders
29
Interpretation
31
Thumbnail Interpretation
32
Scientific and Technical Notes
34
Definition of Cancer Entities
36
Race and Ethnicity
38
Choice of HighRisk Criteria
39
Preparation of Figure 6
42
Cluster Investigation
44
Bibliography
47
Oropharyngeal Carcinoma
48
Salivary Gland Malignancies
56
Squamous Carcinoma of the EsophagusGastric Cardia
63
Adenocarcinoma of the EsophagusGastric Cardia
70
Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Stomach
77
Carcinoma of the Small Intestine
84
Colon Carcinoma Total Both Upper and Sigmoid
91
Carcinoma of the Upper Colon
99
Carcinoma of the Sigmoid Colon
106
Carcinoma of the Rectum
113
Hepatocellular Carcinoma
120
Cholangiocarcinoma
127
Gallbladder Carcinoma
134
Biliary Tract Carcinoma
141
Pancreas Carcinoma
148
Carcinoma of the NoseSinuses
155
Carcinoma of the Larynx
162
Lung and Bronchus Carcinoma Total All Types
169
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus
177
Large Cell Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus
185
Small Cell Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus
192
Adenocarcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus
199
Bronchioloalveolar Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus
207
Undifferentiated Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus
214
Carcinoma of the Lung and Bronchus Not Otherwise Classified
221
Mesothelioma
228
Soft Tissue Sarcoma
235
Angiosarcoma
242
Kaposi Sarcoma
249
Osteosarcoma
256
Ewings Sarcoma
263
Malignant Chordoma
268
Malignant Melanoma
275
Breast Carcinoma
283
Squamous Cervix Carcinoma Invasive
291
Squamous Bladder Carcinoma
346
Renal Cell Carcinoma
353
Wilms Tumor Nephroblastoma
360
Retinoblastoma
367
Brain Malignancies Gliomas
374
Spinal Cord Malignancies
381
Neurolemoma Nerve Sheath Malignancy
386
Neuroblastoma
393
Malignant Meningioma
400
Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid
405
Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid
413
Other Carcinoma of the Thyroid
420
Pituitary Carcinoma
427
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia
432
Carcinoma of the Thymus
439
Mixed Cellularity Hodgkin Lymphoma
446
Nodular Sclerosis Hodgkin Lymphoma
453
Other Hodgkin Lymphoma
461
All NonHodgkin Lymphomas All NonHodgkin Lymphoma Types
468
Follicular NonHodgkin Lymphoma
476
Diffuse Large BCell NonHodgkin Lymphoma
483
Diffuse Small Lymphocytic or Plasmacytic BCell NonHodgkin Lymphoma
490
Diffuse Mixed BCell NonHodgkin Lymphoma
497
HighGrade NonHodgkin Lymphoma
504
TCell NonHodgkin Lymphoma
511
Maltoma NonHodgkin Lymphoma
518
Other NonHodgkin Lymphoma
525
Central Nervous System NonHodgkin Lymphomas All NonHodgkin Lymphoma Types
532
Stomach NonHodgkin Lymphomas All NonHodgkin Lymphoma Types
539
Other Gastrointestinal NonHodgkin Lymphomas All NonHodgkin Lymphoma Types
546
Lymph NodeOther Organ NonHodgkin Lymphomas All NonHodgkin Lymphoma Types
553
Multiple Myeloma
560
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
567
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
575
Hairy Cell Leukemia
582
Acute NonLymphocytic Leukemia
589
Chronic Myelocytic Leukemia
596
Other Leukemias
603
All Malignancies of InfantsToddlers
610
All Malignancies of Older Children
617
All Malignancies of Young Adults
624
All Malignancies of Older Adults
631
All Malignancies
638
Overall Summary
645
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About the author (2004)

Thomas M. Mack is an internationally renowned researcher specialized in the life style factors related to the development of cancer. He is founder of International Twin Registry, a continent-wide series of comparisons between patients with chronic diseases and their unaffected twins; and California Twin Program, an analogous program of studies among twins who differ in lifestyle or personal exposures and experiences.

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