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GAP LIGHT REGIMES
THE RESPONSE OF ACER SACCHARUM AND FAGUS GRANDIFOLIA
SUPPRESSION AND RELEASE OF ACER SACCHARUM DURING CANOPY
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Acer saccharum Adirondack Mountains Adirondacks Arbutus Lake beech saplings beneath a closed beneath closed canopies bifurcation ratios branch surface area canopy gaps canopy recruitment canopy trees cm/yr conifer differences diffuse sky radiation direct beam radiation extension growth Fagus grandifolia gap edge gap horizon gap light index gap light regimes gap saplings growth history height growth rates higher increase large gaps lateral growth rates leader angles leaf area indices leaf display light index values Little Sucker Brook measurements northern hardwood forests old growth forests period of release periods of suppression photosynthesis photosynthetically active radiation radial growth rates radius gap reach the canopy Runkle saccharum and Fagus sample saplings beneath saplings collected saplings in gaps saplings in small shade tolerant species shade tolerant tree shoot length significant significantly small canopy openings small gaps sugar maple saplings Table Tsuga canadensis understory light levels understory saplings Wolf Lake yellow birch