Capital Punishment and Latino Offenders: Racial and Ethnic Differences in Death Sentences
Urbina reviews historical relationships between African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos/Hispanics, proposes the four-threat theory of death sentence outcomes; tests for racial and ethnic effects, and examines the death penalty by the totality of its outcomes. Urbina finds support for orthodox theories of punishment, and partial support for the four-threat theory. This theory suggests that racial and ethnic minorities are not treated the same by the criminal justice system. He also finds that discrimination is not a phenomenon of the past or restricted to commutations and executions; the death penalty must be analyzed by the totality of its outcomes.
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THEORIES OF RACE AND ETHNIC
DEATH SENTENCING AND DEATH
HISTORY OF U S RACE
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According Acuna Additionally African Americans American defendants Americans and Caucasians Americans and Latinos analysis Anglo appellate court Bonacich California capital punishment Caucasian counterparts clemency convictions overturned crime criminal justice system Cubans death penalty death row death sentence dispositions death sentence outcomes dependent variable differences in death discrimination economic threat especially ethnic differences executions and commutations factors Florida four-threat theory Furman governor Hispanic homicide hypotheses immigrants included indicate individuals instance labor Latino/a Latinos less logistic regression Marielitos marital status Marquart Mexican American Mexicans Mexico minority groups murder offenders percent political predicted Pridemore prior felony convictions prison punitive race and ethnicity race/ethnicity racial and ethnic racism rape relationship San Diego Union-Tribune sentence and/or conviction sentence declared unconstitutional sentence of death sentence overturned sentences and death sentences commuted Shorris social control social threat statistically significant Texas U.S. Supreme Court unconstitutional or overturned United victims