Carbon Capture and Sequestration: Removing the Legal and Regulatory Barriers
The United States produces over seventy percent of all its electricity from fossil fuels and nearly fifty percent from coal alone. Worldwide, forty-one percent of all electricity is generated from coal, making it the single most important fuel source for electricity generation, followed by natural gas. This means that an essential part of any portfolio for emissions reduction will be technology to capture carbon dioxide and permanently sequester it in suitable geologic formations. While many nations have incentivized development of CCS technology, large regulatory and legal barriers exist that have yet to be addressed. This book identifies current law and regulation that applies to geologic sequestration in the U.S., the regulatory needs to ensure that geologic sequestration is carried out safely and effectively, and barriers that current law and regulation present to timely deployment of CCS. The authors find the three most significant barriers to be: an ill-defined process to access pore space in deep saline formations; a piecemeal, procedural, and static permitting system; and the lack of a clear, responsible plan to address long-term liability associated with sequestered CO2. The book provides legislative options to remove these barriers and address the regulatory needs, and makes recommendations on the best options to encourage safe, effective deployment of CCS. The authors operationalize their recommendations in legislative language, which is of particular use to policymakers faced with the challenge of addressing climate change and energy.
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1 The Importance of Carbon Capture and Geologic Sequestration in a Carbon Constrained World
2 Technology for Carbon Capture and Geologic Sequestration
3 Siting CO2 Pipelines for Geologic Sequestration
4 Permitting Geologic Sequestration Sites
5 Learning from and Adapting to Changes in Geologic Sequestration Technology
6 Access to Pore Space for Geologic Sequestration
7 Liability and the Management of LongTerm Stewardship
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agency application aquifer assessment atmosphere cap and trade capture and storage capturing CO2 carbon capture Carbon Dioxide Capture Carbon Sequestration Carnegie Mellon University Chapter climate change CO2 capture CO2 injection permit CO2 pipelines CO2-EOR commercial common carrier compensation cost courts economic electricity eminent domain eminent domain authority emission reduction Energy enhanced oil recovery environmental federal lands FERC FGSB fluid fuel fund geologic CO2 sequestration geologic sequestration project GHG accounting GHG emissions GHG reduction program Greenhouse Gas Control GS project GS sites injected CO2 interests issues legislation liability license long-term stewardship mass of CO2 mineral monitoring natural gas storage ofthe oil and gas ownership Performance-based regulation permanent geologic sequestration pipeline transportation Policy potential power plants production project developers reporting require reservoir risk Selexol sequestration of CO2 surface leakage surface owner tonnes UIC program Underground Injection